Find the equation of the line that passes through the points with coordinates (-2, 3) and (1, 6).
Exam 1 Study Guide NOTE: You are responsible for all questions on the study guides. Many of the study guide questions below have been copied verbatim (see quotation marks) from the margins of your book. Some questions have been rewritten to enhance clarity. Other questions are unique to the study guide. Chapter 1 Study Guide: Foundations for the Study of Psychology Explain the formal definition of psychology, including defining behavior, mind, and science. The science of psychology requires that both human behavior and the human mind be studied scientifically. Explain. What does dualism mean What was Decarte’s version of dualism “How did Decarte’s view pave the way for a science of psychology” Yet, why was Descarte’s theory unsuitable for modern, scientific psychology How did Hobbes’ materialism contribute to the science of psychology How did the early understanding of the nervous system inspire a theory of behavior called reflexology How did the discoveries of localization of function in the brain contribute to the science of psychology Take note of Paul Broca’s discovery. Clarify British empiricists’ explanation for the origin of complex ideas and thoughts. Include the role of the law of association by contiguity in your explanation. Contiguity refers to closeness in _____ and ___. The law of association by contiguity means ____. Generate a novel example. Take note that this theory is a fundamental part of modern psychology. The opposite of empiricism is _____. Explain the view that the ability to learn is dependent on inborn knowledge. Can you identify an example Explain the theory of natural selection. How did Darwin’s theory of natural selection provide insight on the origin of a priori knowledge Can you identify an example in humans The scope of psychology includes different levels of analysis: neural, genetic, evolutionary, learning, cognitive, social, cultural, and developmental. Acquaint yourself with each of these levels. Why might it be more difficult to read the textbook than to read your favorite novel Should you try to memorize the material in the textbook Should you simply accept the claims of the author of the textbook “How can you use the focus questions in the book to make your reading more thought provoking and effective” How can the section and subsection headings be used effectively as study tools Chapter 2 Study Guide: Methods of Psychology What does it mean to say that psychology is a science What lessons were learned from Clever Hans How did the clever horse answer questions correctly Explain the nature of the cues from the audience, and how these cues were unveiled. “How are facts, theories, and hypotheses related to one another in the scientific enterprise” “How does the Clever Hans story illustrate 1) the value of skepticism, 2) the value of controlled experimentation, and 3) the need for researchers to avoid communicating their expectations to subjects” “How can an experiment prove the causeeffect relation between two variables” What are the independent variables and the dependent variables Why is it necessary to keep all other variables constant Clarify your understanding of withinsubject designs and betweensubjects designs. “What were the independent and dependent variables in Pfungst’s (withinsubject) experiment with Clever Hans” “What were the independent and dependent variables in the betweensubject experiment on treatments for depression” “Why were the subjects randomly assigned to the treatment conditions rather than allowed to choose their own treatment” “What are the differences between a correlational study and an experiment, in procedure and in the types of conclusions that can be drawn” Why cannot cause and effect be determined from a correlational study “What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of laboratory studies and field studies” Take note of the consequences of the sign used in a field experiment in the Petrified Forest National Park. Data collection methods include: selfreport, naturalistic observations, and tests. “What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of each method” “How do the mean, median, and standard deviation help describe” a data set When comparing data sets with the same mean, what does variability refer to “How does a correlation coefficient describe the direction and strength of the relationship between two variables” How do scatter plots show the dispersion of correlational data Why perform inferential statistics before drawing conclusions from research data Clarify the implications when a research study is statistically significant at the 5 percent level. “How is statistical significance affected by the size of the effect, the number of individual subjects or observations, and the variability of the scores within each group” Clarify the distinction between statistical significance and practical significance. “What is the difference between error and bias, and why is bias the more serious problem” Study Figure 2.4. “How can a nonrepresentative selection of subjects introduce bias” into a research study “What is the difference between the reliability and the validity of a measurement procedure” “How can lack of validity contribute to bias” What are observerexpectancy and subjectexpectancy effects How can the supposed phenomenon of facilitated communication by sufferers of autism be explained as an observerexpectancy effect “How does a doubleblind procedure control for both observerexpectancy and subjectexpectancy expectancies” Clarify the role of a placebo in research. “Clarify the ethical concerns in research regarding privacy, discomfort, deception, and animal welfare. How do researchers strive to minimize problems related to these concerns” Statistical Appendix Study Guide Describe the procedures for organizing and summarizing a set of scores, include ranking the scores, depicting a frequency distribution and its resulting shapes, and calculating measures of central tendency (mean & median). What does measurement variability capture in a data set How does a percentile rank of a given score reveal how one person compares to others on a given measure Describe the relationship between percentile rank and a normal distribution. What percentage of scores fall within (+/) one standard deviation from the mean Take note of Figure A.5 to understand an example of a scatter plot relating GPA to IQ. Is this correlation a) positive or negative, and b) strong or weak Chapter 4 Study Guide: Basic Processes of Learning Classical Conditioning Evolution by natural selection is a longterm adaptive process. How is learning an adaptive process to the everchanging conditions of daily living Explain what psychologists mean by learning. “What is a stimulusresponse reflex” Clarify the role of the central nervous system, and the potential for habituation, in reflexes. How did Pavlov discover the “psychic secretion” to be later named the conditioned reflex Following his discovery, “how did Pavlov systematize the process of conditioning, and what names were given to the relevant stimuli and responses” In Pavlov’s view, could any stimulus ultimately serve as a conditioned stimulus From your life, generate an example of a conditioned reflex. “How can a conditioned reflex be extinguished” What evidence led Pavlov and other scientists to conclude the extinction may be followed with the passage of time by spontaneous recovery Following extinction, does “the animal or human return to its original, untrained state” What is the phenomenon of generalization, and to what extent does magnitude of the response to the new stimulus depend on similarity between the new stimulus and the original conditioned stimulus “How can generalization in classical conditioning be abolished through discrimination training” “How can discrimination training be used to assess an animal’s sensory capabilities” “How have researchers shown that the meaning of a stimulus [not just the physical characteristics of the stimulus] can provide a basis for generalization in classical conditioning” What made Pavlov’s findings on conditioning appealing to proponents of behaviorism “How did Pavlov’s SS theory of classical conditioning differ from Watson’s SR theory” For what reason did the SS theory not appeal to Watson and other behaviorists Include the concept of gravity in your discussion. How did Rescorla’s experiment “involving habituation of the unconditioned stimulus [loud sound] support the SS theory” “How does the cognitive construct of expectancy [e.g., expectation of food after sound of bell] help explain the ways in which conditioned responses [e.g., tail wagging, food begging, and salivation] differ from unconditioned responses [e.g., salivation]” Rescorla saw the learner as “an information seeker using logical and perceptual relations among events to form a sophisticated representation of the world.” “What are three conditions in which the pairing of a new stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus does not result in classical conditioning” Include predictive timing, heightened probability, and blocking effect in your discussion. How did Watson demonstrate in baby Albert that the emotion of fear can be conditioned Did little Albert’s fear generalize to other furry objects How has sexual arousal and appetite has been conditioned in humans or other animals “Why is the conditioned response to the drugrelated stimulus commonly the opposite of the direct effect of the drug” Explain the development of drug tolerance, and the danger associated with the drug user taking the usual amount of the drug in a novel environment. Explain the role of conditioned reactions as causes of drug relapse after withdrawal. Familiarize yourself with the concept of homeostasis (see p. 187). Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning focused on our reflexive responses to stimuli. Operant conditioning focuses on our nonreflexive behavior to obtain certain stimuli (aka., operant responses). Why are operant responses also called instrumental responses How does the “law of effect” summarize the process by which Thorndike’s cat learned to escape the puzzle box “How did Skinner’s method for studying learning differ from Throndike’s, and why did he prefer the term reinforcement to Thornkike’s satisfaction” Why is money considered a “conditioned reinforcer” “What is some evidence that people can be conditioned to make an operant response without awareness of the conditioning process,” and “how is this relevant for understanding the acquisition of motor skills” Explain how shaping is used to train an animal to jump through a hoop or sit on command. “In what ways is extinction in operant conditioning similar to extinction in classical conditioning” Why is a continuous reinforcement schedule more efficient at establishing the behavior initially “How do the four types of partialreinforcement schedules differ from one another, and why do responses generally occur faster to ratio schedules then to interval schedules” “How do variableratio and variable interval schedule produce behavior that is highly resistant to extinction” “How does negative reinforcement differ from positive reinforcement” “How does punishment differ from reinforcement, and how do the two kinds of punishment parallel the two kinds of reinforcement” “How can an animal be trained to produce an operant response only when a specific cue [discriminative stimulus] is present” “How was discrimination training used to demonstrate that pigeons understand the concept of a tree” “What are two ways in which foodaversion learning differs from typical examples of classical conditioning” “How might rats learn which food contains a needed vitamin or mineral” “What is some evidence that people and monkeys are biologically predisposed to learn to fear some things more easily than other things” What is a critical period, and how is this period related to imprinting in goslings “What special placelearning abilities have been found in (a) birds that hide food and (b) Pacific salmon How do all examples of specialized learning mechanisms influence thought about the concept of [relative] intelligence” Chapter 6 Study Guide: Mechanisms of Motivation and Emotion Define motivational state/drive. Why are drives in psychology thought of as “hypothetical constructs” “How do drives and incentives a) complement one another, and b) influence one another in their contributions to motivation” Explain homeostasis with an example. “How is the concept of homeostasis related to that of drive” “How is this relationship demonstrated in the case of a little boy who craved salt” “What is the distinction between regulatory drive and nonregulatory drive, and how can mammalian drives be classified into five categories based on function” “In theory, what characteristics must a set of neurons have to function as a central drive system” “What characteristics of the hypothalamus seem to suit it to be a hub of such systems” “What are three interrelated components of the concept of reward” “How did Olds and Milner identify reward pathways in the brain” “What is some evidence that the medial forebrain bundle and nucleus accumbens are essential pathways for the effects of a wide variety of rewards” “What is some evidence that different neurotransmitters in the nucleus accumbens are involved in the ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ components of reward” “What evidence suggests that dopamine is crucial to the capacity of rewards to promote new learning— that is, to serve as reinforcers” “How does an understanding of the brain’s reward system help us to understand drug addiction and compulsive gambling” “What is meant by feedback control” of appetite “What is the evidence that the hormone PYY helps reduce appetite after a mean and that underproduction of PYY may contribute to obesity” “How does the hormone leptin contribute to weight regulation, and why isn’t leptin a good antiobesity drug” “How do conditioned stimuli and the availability of many foods, with different flavors, contribute to appetite and obesity” Explain sensoryspecific satiety. “What is the evidence that within a culture, differences in body weight result mostly from differences in genes, but across cultures, environment plays a large role” “On the basis of the reports of successful dieters and the advice of appetite researchers, what can people do to maintain a lower weight” Chapter 3 Study Guide: Genetic and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior What amount of genetic similarity exists between human and chimpanzee DNA Define longterm and shortterm adaptation. Which of these adaptive processes did Darwin study How do genes affect behavioral traits indirectly, rather than directly Clarify how “genes can influence behavioral traits only through interaction with the environment.” For example, how do environmental cues activate genes that make rats and mice nurturant to newborns “What is the advantage of producing genetically diverse offspring” “What is the difference between a dominant and a recessive gene” How do genes contribute to the variation in behavior in any animal “Why would it be a mistake to conclude that fear in dogs is caused by just one gene, or that it is caused by genes and not by the environment” “How are the characteristics of animals shaped through selective breeding” “How did Tryon produce ‘maze bright’ and ‘maze dull’ strains of rats” What experimental procedure showed that this “difference was the result of genes, not rearing” Ultimately, why were the strain differences “not properly characterized in terms of brightness/dullness” “What insight led Darwin to his theory of evolution” “How is natural selection similar to and different from artificial selection” “How are genes involved in evolution” “What are the sources of genetic diversity on which natural selection acts” “How does change in the environment affect the direction and speed of evolution” “How did a study of finches illustrate the role of environmental change in evolution” “What are three mistaken beliefs about evolution, all related to the misconception that foresight is involved” “How does an understanding of evolution provide a basis for functionalism in psychology” “How are ultimate explanations of behavior different from, but complementary to, proximate explanations” “What are four reasons for the existence of traits or behaviors that do not serve survival and reproduction functions” Explain vestigial characteristics by referring to Figure 3.13. After studying Figure 3.14, clarify “what evidence supports the idea that many human emotional expressions are speciestypical” (biologicallyprepared; universal). Yet, “how do human emotional expressions illustrate the point that speciestypical behaviors can be modified by learning,” and are more easily and accurately identified by other members of their own culture than by members of a different culture How is biological preparedness illustrated with the examples of: twolegged walking by dogs and humans, and by infants learning to walk and talk “Why is the concept of speciestypical behavior relative rather than absolute” “What is the difference between a homology and an analogy, and how can researchers tell whether a similarity between two species in some trait is one or the other” “How are homologies used for learning about a) the physiological mechanism and b) the evolutionary pathways of speciestypical behavior” “How do studies of homologies between humans and other primates support the view that the human greeting smile and the human happy smile have separate evolutionary origins”