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Find Vab and Vdc in the circuit in Fig. P2.75. Figure

Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis | 11th Edition | ISBN: 9781118539293 | Authors: J. David Irwin ISBN: 9781118539293 159

Solution for problem 2.75 Chapter 2

Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis | 11th Edition

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Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis | 11th Edition | ISBN: 9781118539293 | Authors: J. David Irwin

Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis | 11th Edition

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Problem 2.75

Find Vab and Vdc in the circuit in Fig. P2.75. Figure P2.75 + 4 3 1 2 2 5 20 V + Vab + a b c d Vdc

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March 1, 2016  Carboniferous o Euramerica  Laurasia  Sits on the equator  Warm climate  Low pole-to-pole temperature gradients  Kaskaskian Transgression o Global sea level rise o A lot of deposition of clastic material and limestone o Williston Basin  Contains a lot of clastic and shallow marine materials  Bakken Shale  oil  Fine grained, clastic material  End of the Mississippian o Another glaciation o Starts in the late Mississippian  Late Permian o Change in the climate  High pole-to-pole temperature gradients  Tropical at the equator but frigid at the poles o High O l2vels  35% PAL  Early Pennsylvanian o Absaroka  Through Permian  Sea levels have gone down again o Collision between Euramerica and Gondwana  May have happened in pulses  Between what is going to become Africa, South America and the South-East coast of the United State  Chain of mountains form  Supercontinent of Pangaea  Ocean is called the Panthallasic Ocean o The down warping of Euramerica causes the sea level to be outpaced by the land transgression o Sea level rises and falls extremely quickly  Alternating terrestrial and marine sediments  Cyclothems  Pangaea / Alleghenian Orogeny o Allegheny and Appalachian Mountains  South East North America o Ouachita Mountains  Africa o Atlas Mountains  North West Africa  Late Permian o No glaciers o Climate: warm, low pole-to-pole gradients o Rise of arid and semi-arid areas  Deposition of sand dunes and evaporate minerals  Things are drying out in the centers of the continents  Pennsylvanian o Low lying - inundated with water o Forests  coal forests  Ferns and fern-like plants  Sphenopsids  “horsetails”  Lycopods (big trees)  Cordaites (big trees) o These forest provide coal and petroleum  Thick layers of plants  Undecomposed o Coal  Plants die and pile up  Heavy and continuous growth  Accumulate low O e2vironment  Water  Stay buried  interlayered sediment  Application of pressure from the overlying material  Increased temperature  Forces water out  Breaks down complex hydrocarbons  Releases: CO a2d methane o Plants  peat  lignite  bitumen  anthracite March 3, 2016  Pennsylvanian o 35% PAL  Higher concentrations of oxygen in the atmosphere  Knowing the anatomy and the physiology of living animals helps to interpret fossils  Arthropods o Sectioned o Breathe through openings in their sides  In each segment  No lungs, no pumping system  Openings are called spiracles  Lead to a series of tubes that branch out all over the body  Passive system  Diffuses throughout the body  Bigger tubes = more oxygen can come in  Limited by the other things this organism may need (organs, legs, etc.)  Distance that it can move is proportional to the concentration of oxygen  More oxygen there is in the atmosphere, the farther the atmosphere can diffuse  More oxygen in the atmosphere, the animal can get bigger o Very large arthropods during the Pennsylvanian  Oxygen level  there was a peak in the concentration in the atmosphere during the Permian  Tetrapod o Evolved and diversified into many forms through the Late Paleozoic o A lot of them still had gills o Still very small o Some moved to freshwater habitats o Solved the problem of respiration  developed lungs o Stronger limbs and ribcages  support their weight on land o Solved a lot of problems regarding feeding on land  Separate head from body  develop a neck  Can move their heads independent from their body  Amniota o Invent the egg o Egg before the Amniota  Around the yolk is the membrane  Around the membrane is jelly  Permeable to water  means it can dry out  Doesn’t allow gas exchange  No support  Limits size  adult  Ties to the water o Amniota fixes these problems  Puts a hard shell around it  Has multiple membranes  Shell  Support and allows gas to pass through it  Allows gas exchange  facilitated by the membranes  Permeable to gas but not permeable to water  Can be laid on land o First Amniotes that we see show up in the early Pennsylvania  Nova Scotia  “Joggins” site o Synapsida  Mammals and mammal-kin  70% of all Amniotes o Reptilia  Only 30% of all Amniotes  Synapsids o Pelycosaurs  Herbivores and carnivores  Very diverse  Elongate spine of the vertebrae o Terapsids  Really big herbivores  More erect posture, can move a lot faster due to the structure of their legs  Very diverse group  Cynodonts  Shows up at the end of the Permian  Cyodonts o Late Permian  Pangaea: primarily southern hemisphere  95% of marine life goes extinct  75% of everything living on land goes extinct  We know more about the marine extinction than the terrestrial extinction  Plant diversity is cut in half  We just don’t have many good examples  Only 4 of 35 terrestrial animals live past the boundary  Trilobites go extinct o Anoxia  Lowered levels of oxygen in the ocean  Warmer water  oxygen is less soluble in warmer water  Lack of mixing in the ocean at the time  warmer climates o Hypercapnia  Higher CO i2 the oceans  Harder for  oxygenate tissues o Huge increase in Volcanism at the end of the Permian  Example: Siberian Traps --. 337,000 km of flood basalts  Carbon dioxide and methane  This warms up the atmosphere very quickly  Flood basalts were spewing out into shallow seas o Methane hydrate  13di12nt or ice  C/ C  sharp drop

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Chapter 2, Problem 2.75 is Solved
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Textbook: Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis
Edition: 11
Author: J. David Irwin
ISBN: 9781118539293

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Find Vab and Vdc in the circuit in Fig. P2.75. Figure