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The two oxides of carbon described on page 38 were CO and

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci ISBN: 9780132064521 175

Solution for problem 18 Chapter 2

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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Problem 18

The two oxides of carbon described on page 38 were CO and Another oxide of carbon has 1.106 g of oxygen in a 2.350 g sample. In what ratio are carbon and oxygen atoms combined in molecules of this third oxide? Explain.

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The British Invasion  Timing was important (1964)  America was starving for direction  The British resurrected the music we ignored  Music was more sophisticated, yet still raucous  English teenagers were breaking away in the 60s o America did this in the 50s  England’s “James Dean” counterpart­ “Teddy Boys” Stiffle Music  A tame brand of pop folk music and traditional jazz  Taken from New Orleans style  Popular in England in the 50s  King of stiffle: Lonnie Donegan  Changing social behavior brought change in the music  British band turned to Elvis, little Richard, Chuck Berry, etc Initial Important Facts about the Beatles  Leading group of pop history  Able to change music history throughout all facets; music style, fashion, social behavior  Early influence: skiffle music  Moved rock music to sophisticated level through the 60’s and 70’s  Can be broken into three distinctive periods Early Period of Beatles  Pop style  Love songs  Driving beat/ up tempo  Covered other tunes by other artist; o Twist and Shout by Isley Brothers o All My Loving by McCartney (wrote the song on a bus during tour)  Honed their skills on classic rockers (Berry, Little Richard, Buddy Holly, etc)  Hamburg, Germany became their training grounds (performed 7 days a week)  February 9, 1964 Beatles came to America and performed on the Ed Solomon Show o Over 17 million people tuned in to watch The Beatles perform live on the show Recordings  The first album (Please Please Me) was recorded in only 13 hours (all at once)  First album represented a typical set at the Cavern  Wide range of covers  The group released two albums per year from 1963 to 65  Four albums fall in the early period  Beatles for sale shows the transition period beginning  From the beginning, John Lennon and Pal McCartney were not equal in writing their songs  American releases are different form the British releases  In April 1964, the first 5 songs on the Charts were all Beatles songs  Many firsts happened in the studio; used recorded feedback, sitar, mellotron, fuzz bass effect, studio manipulation, backwards tape loop, etc The Middle Period  More acoustic/folk elements (Bob Dylan influence)  Introspective style  Individuality more evident  Social statements in songs  Next 2 albums: Help! (Aug 65’) and Rubber Soul (Dec 65’)  Pal McCartney wrote We Can Work It Out, inspired by his girlfriend Jane Asher  John Lennon controversy: said, “Bigger than Jesus” The Late Period  Use of studio techniques  Music more individualized  More artistic composition  Added instrumentation  Drug influenced  The “White Album” titled The Beatles is ironically the least collaborative album of the groups output  The late period includes the last 7 releases: o Revolver, Sgt. Pepper, Magical Mystery Tour, Yellow Submarine, The Beatles (White Album), Let It Be, Abbey Road  Lennon and McCartney wrote many songs that were covered by other performers that became hits th  George ___ referred to as the 5 Beatle  Ringo Starr is respected by many drummers and musicians for his excellent timekeeping John Mayall and The Bluesbreakers  Known as the elder statesman of British Blues  The finishing school for a large group of blues­rock artists  Players overshadowed Mayall’s capabilities  An adequate singer and multi­instrumentalist  Brought out the best in the other younger players  Provided a context for them to play in the Chicago blues style  Some sidesman: Eric Clapton (guitar), Mick Taylor (guitar, Rolling Stones) The Yardbirds  The starting point for Clapton/Beck/Page  Began as a R&B­blues cover band  Early recordings with Sonny Boy Williamson  Branched out into moody, experimental rock  Early pioneers of psychedelic music  Yardbirds became a breeding groundwork for progressive rock in the 60’s  Known for ad hoc jams (called raves)  Name taken from album entitled Having a Rave Up  Raves: mix of R&B with extended guitar/harmonica passages. Blues with a fierce drive to the music. The Animals­Eric Burdon  Second only to the Rolling Stones in influence among R&B based bands  Origins are traced back to Newcastle (The Kansas City Five)  Like The Stones, The Animals were booked into the Crawdaddy Club in London  Groups went through various changes after 1966/ Disbanded in 1969  Eric Burdon (leader of The Animals) went on to join the group WAR  Songs: Boom Boom The Kinks  Began as R&B/blues band  The most staunchly English group of all  Lyrics more “quintessentially English” (Pete Townsend)  Brought the “English Proper” into the music  Known as the precursors of heavy metal and punk rock  Later known as “power chord” playing  Set the stage for the 70s (late 60s)  Ray Davy* The Who  Members included Pete Townshend  Roger Daltrey (Vocals), Johns Etwislte (Bass), Keith Moon (Drums)  Originally known as the Detours and The High Numbers  Known for their explosive stage act which included ear­shattering volume, windmill­style guitar playing, acrobatic leaps, smashing guitars and drums sets.  Achieved American success in 1967 with an appearance at the Monterey Pop Festival  Originally associated with the Mod Movement (short for modernist), a mid­60s British subculture similar to the teddy boys that featured highly tailored fashion, motor scooters and an appreciation for R&B music  As the Mod movement declined, The Who turned towards Neo­Classical rock  Composed rock opera, Tommy (1969) ­ considered by many to be their masterpiece The Rolling Stones  Breakout band of the blues scene  Flirted with the seedy side R&R  Perceived as working class  Strived to be more earthly  Portrayed a vulgar look (no uniforms)  Propelled by R&B music (“we were blues purists”)  The English R&B movement challenged the beat music of the day  Viewed by America as surreal, maybe a little scary… but fascinating  Manager: Andrew Oldham  Pushed the generation gap  Considered the dangerous alternative to the Mereybeat of the Beatles  Jagger and Richards are the core of the group  Performed at the Crawdaddy Club for 8 months (met Andrew Oldham there)  Rougher and sexier than the Beatles  The group had been together since 1962  Often referred to as “The World’s Greatest Rock and Roll Band”  Songs: Satisfaction with Brian Jones Mick Jagger  Customized certain details of blues phrasing and enunciatio0n into his style  A distinctive voice from everyone  His draw is much like blue singer Howlin’ Wolf  Attracted to the gruff, eloquent directness of black music  He is a white person singing black songs and flaunting it  Colorful stage presence  Mick Jagger & Keith Richards are the key members of the band  Songs: Their Satanic Majesties Request, 2000 light Years From Home Motown  Almost entirely attributed to one man­ Berry Gordy  Jazz record store went bankrupt in Detroit in early 50s  Gordy began to write R&B songs for local acts  Acquired a reputation as a song writer and producer  First break­ writing for Jackie Wilson (Reet Petite)  Several hits followed and Gordy became Detroit’s leading songwriter  Borrowed money to go into independed production  R&B music that passed for black and white in sound  Perfected a gospel­pop fusion Gordy produced a unique blend of: 1) Stock rock chord progressions 2) Gospel feel (female back­up and all & response) 3) Doo­wop male vocals 4) Solid instrumental back­up Early Motown Hits  Money featuring Barrett Strong  Covered by the Beatles  Strong eventual hits as a writing team (Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong)  Penned many great hits as a writing team  Gordy starts his own record label –Tamla  Gordy teams with Smokey Robinson to write and record Shop Around  Reached #2 on the pop charts  Puts Gordy’s new company in the black  New talent begins to join the Motown team The Motown Formula  Simple musical structure (ex: ababcc)  Repeated uses of catchy hock phrase  Repetition of melodic hook resulted in familiarity to the mass public  Lyrics at times were trivial  Gospel vocals devices in a pop context  Instrumental track provided a hot mix of intense grooves  Able to go beyond R&B cliché with hip melodies and arrangements  Amplify secularized gospel lyrics with grandiose orchestral settings  Produced the sound of “Young America”  Motown rose to be the biggest black­owned corporations in America  Studio building was known as “Hitsville USA”  House band made up of some of the finest R&B musicians of the 60’s  Studio musicians were known as “The Funk Brothers” The Funk Brothers  The studio musicians who shaped Motown sound  Were paid $10 a song until everything was right  Defined the Motown sound of the 60s, which fused gospel, soul, and pop  Backed all of the Motown acts  Played on more Number One hits than The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Thee beach Boys, and Elvis combined  The Funk Brothers are documented in the movie Standing in the Shadows of Motown (2000) Holland­Dozier­Holland  Leading writing team of Motown  Gordy expanded the writing team in 61’  Lamont Dozier (local veteran of the Detroit scene), Brian and Eddie Holland  Trio refined and produces the Motown formula  Results showed 28 top 20 hits in a three year period Smokey Robinson and The Miracles  Set the pattern for Motown  Robinson became one of the most prolific writers for Motown  Miracles remained the most consistent group for Motown through the 60s  Known for Robinsons beautiful falsetto voice  Ballads became The Miracles forte  Songs: “I Second That Emotion” The Marvelettes  Motown’s only girl group  Songs: “Don’t Mess With Bill” Marvin Gaye  Shy performer  Originally a session drummer at Motown  Became one of Motown’s most enigmatic and consistently popular acts  Career can be broken into two stages Stage one:  Worked with all the Motown production staff  Found medium tempo shouters to be successful Stage two:  Became a composer himself  Liberated him form Gordy’s studio system  Captured the social sign of the times in his composition  Pensive and introspective style  Returned to love songs in an erotic form  Shot to death by his father in 1984 The Four Tops  A cross between R&B and The Mills Brothers  Music built around leading singer Levi Stubbs  Captured the mid­sixties Motown sound  Nonstop hits for about four years in the 60s  Songs: “Baby I need your Loving”, “I Can’t Help Myself” The Temptations  Arguably the best vocal group of 60s soul music  Out­dressed, out­danced, and out­sang everybody  The closest to church and gospel roots  Psychedelic Soul  David Rufin, Dennis Edwards  Ball of Confusion sung by entire group (Eddie, Dennis, Paul, Melvin, and Otis) Dianna Ross & The Supremes  One of the most important female groups in rock history  Motown’s consummate commercial group  Twelve #1 pop hits (one of the highest ever, male or female)  H­D­H devised a medium tempo formula that accentuated Ross’s voice  Her diversity had a carefree style  Their music was the purest expression of the Motown sound  The key to The Supremes was Ross (overshadowed the others in voice and look)  Snogs: “Baby Love” The Jackson 5  Motown’s last great act  Fronted by 10 year old Michael  He danced like a miniature James Brown  J5 transcended all race and age barriers  Their talent was real Rare Earth  Motown’s premier white rock and sold band  Motown’s experimental assault on the rock market  Sold over 10 million records worldwide  Labeled “Blue­Eyed Soul” Stevie Wonder  Most successful artist in Motown’s history  Born Stevland Morris – May 13, 1950  Blind since infancy (and lost sense of smell in car accident in 1973)  Introduced to berry Gordy by Ronnie White (from The Miracles)  11 years old when he signed with Tamla records  Novelty at the beginning: played bongos, harmonica, and had energy  Quick learner growing up in Motown  First big hit was Fingertips –part 2 at age 12  First live recording to hit #1 in rock history  Signed, sealed, and Delivered (70) was his first production work  Gained control of his finances at age 21  120 page contract with Motown made business history  Higher royalty rate and complete artistic freedom  By the 70s Wonder was playing most of the instruments on his album  Signed a 7 year contract with Motown for 13 million Bob Dylan  Most important American contributor to rock music  Not commercially staggering, artistic significance  Leader of the folk movement of 1962­63  Grew popular in new York in the early years (college campuses)  Leading influences Woodie Gutherie and hank Williams  Music reflected social awareness of race, human injustice  First poet of mass media  Two distinctive time periods: acoustic and electric  This implies folk and rock are separate – Dylan shows that folk is rock  Fusion of country, folk, blues, rock and roll, and poetry both ancient and new The Beatles Bob Dylan love songs Social Awarness Music is cool and aloof; detached from the artists Emotional; close to personal life Classical/cerebral Expressionistic/emotive  The music is raw (same as rocks beginning)  His nasal, insistent voice has been a trademark his entire career  Album notes printed in lower case  His lyrics have been discussed in English classes  Lyrics referenced; History, Literature, Poetry, International Affairs, Modern Art, etc Acoustic period  First album: The Times They Are A­Changin’ (63)  Was his most overt protest album  Excellent representation of his early period  Many songs written from new reports  Seen as a “period work”  Gives the feeling of the “dust bowl” era  Grapes of Wrath The Times They Are A Changin’  Became an anthem for frustrated youth  Summed up the anti­establishment feeling of people  These people alter became known as hippies  Most of the lyrics are based on the civil rights movement Electric period  Illustrates wit  Music was catalytic for the drug culture and the Vietnam war  Lyrics never intended to be pure poetry  65/66 world tour booed, worshiped and debated  Captured the film Don’t Look Back  Dylan’s electric band went on to form The Band (Robbie Robertson)  Set the scene for folk­rock  Followed by the Byrds and Buffalo Springfield Subterranean Homesick Blues  Dylan’s first top 40 hit  One of the Dylan’s first electric pieces  Possible three way reference 1) Chuck berry song: Too Much Monkey Business Riffed­up rock’n’roll poetry 2) Jack Kerouac’s 1950 novel: The Subterranean 1958 novel about The Beat The Generation 3) Guthrie/Seegar song: Taking it Easy “mom was in the kitchen preparing to eat, sis was in the pantry looking for some yeast”  Dylan’s hyperkinetic lyrics were dense with up­to­the­minute allusions to important emerging elements in the 60s Like a Rolling Stone  Lyrics based on a short story written by Dylan  About a debutante who becomes a loner when she falls out of high society  Critics considered it to be Dylan’s magnum opus  Dylan: “just a rhythm thing on paper all about my steady hatred, directed at some point that was honest”  Many speculated the song is either about Edie Sedgwick or Joan Baes (both associated with Dylan at the time)  Rolling Stones Magazine named it #1 on their list of the greatest songs of all time (2004) The Byrds  Group that synthesized Dylan and the Beatles  Distinctive trademark sound using 12­string guitar  All members (but one) from a folk style background  Dylan’s composition: Mr. Tambourine Man (65)  Declared to be the first folk­rock hit in rock history  Beatles’ Ticket to ride inspired the sound Eight Miles High (66)  Unusual harmonies  12 string fierce soloing (sitar influenced/John Coltrane)  Banned for its drug suggestion  Heralded as the first drug tune and led 60’s music to the psychedelic period – aka “Acid Rock” Buffalo Springfield – For What It’s Worth  One of the most representative sounds of the 1960’s  Written by Stephen Stills during the aftermath of the infamous Sunset Strip riots of 66­67  Song put Buffalo Springfield on the nation map  Commonly label as a protest song  More in the folk tradition of The San Francisco Scene – Haight Ashbury  Became a growing sub­culture  Consisted of communes, starving artist, dropouts, the anti­establishment (aka Existentialists)  Large community of folk musicians  The acid test led by writer Ken Kesey became known as a “Happening”  LSD was he answer to breaking free of the repression of society  Estimated there was 500 to 1500 bands in the San Francisco area  Large population of San Francisco State College students Existentialism Takes precedence over essence and holds that a person is totally free and responsible for his/her acts, and that a person is totally free and responsible for their self and that this responsibility is the source of the dread and anguish that encompass them  Became entrenched in the university curriculum by the early 60s  Gave students a language to question the complacent assumptions of American Soceity  Moved away from the rational viewpoint to focus more on the individual realm  Life was viewed as “this moment being the ultimate thing”  In the late 70s, existentialism’s popularity waned Psychedelic Music / San Francisco Scene  Floating quality to the music (expands the mind)  Eastern Indian Influence (sitar)  Not necessarily melodic or rhythmic  FM radio featured non­top 40 music (album cuts)  Dance clubs were stoned­out, freak dancing scenes  Excitement was produced by the drug ingestion  Groups looked upon as gurus or prophets  San Francisco became the national capital of psychedelia The Charlatans  Considered to be the start of the Haight/Ashbury scene  Contribution is more a social one  Outrageous dress and attitudes (existentialists)  Planted the seeds of the rock counterculture  Music was rooted in good­time jung­band blues – not psychedelic freaking – outs  Early grateful dead/country joes and the fish style  Never really had commercial success Moby Grape  One of the best San Francisco bands of the 60s  More versatile than other SF bands  Combination of folk, blues, country, and classic R&R  Use of triple guitar arrangements  Many San Francisco bands were assemblies of recent immigrants to the area  Canadian, Skip Spence (originally Airplane’s drummer) played guitar  Left Airplane to lead Grape on the guitar and composition  Early Airplane Played some Moby Grape’s composition  Plagued with problems prevented the band from ever reaching national statues  First self­titled album remained their greatest (67) Jefferson Airplane  Most popular of the San Francisco bands  Leaders of the protest movement and supporters of free love  The group that out­of­towners wanted to see  Early influences came from the Beatles (were folk rockers – like most) Grace Slick:  Lead singer for Jefferson Airplane… San Francisco  Great female rock voice  Represented the love­hate image of the 60s  Direct in interviews (very outspoken)  Voice was driving and edgy White Rabbit  One of Grace’s earliest songs (65­66)  Draws parallels between the effects of psychedelics and the imagery found in the works of Lewis Carroll  Grace’s response towards parents who asked why their children were taking drugs  Set to a rising crescendo similar to that of Ravel’s famous Bolero  Both music and lyrics strongly suggest the sensory distortion experienced with hallucinogens  The song has been utilized in pop culture to imply just such a state The Grateful Dead  Psychedelic era’s most beloved band  Considered to be the ultimate cult band  Never really part of the mainstream music scene  Became superstars on their own terms  Known for their extended free form jams at concerts  Yearly years (prior to 65) were known as The Warlocks  House band for the Kesey Acid Test “Happenings”  Occupied a commune in the Height­Ashbury ear  Music is an electric blend of folk, country and blues  Known for their live concerts then their albums  Fans known as Deadheads  Only mainstream hit was Touch of Grey (87) The Twenty­Seven Club Janis Joplin  A representation of a culture and a generation (like Dylan)  Broke the barriers for women in the music industry  Able to conquer her limitations though her music  Her beauty was seen in her energy, sweetness, soul, arrogance, and sense of humor  Refused to admit to limits – pushed to the extremes  Did not write much of her material – interpreted others  Critics, at times, felt she “strangled” her music  Overall, her performances were fresh and sincere  Sang the blues to transcend pain  Went to San Francisco in 66  Joined Big Brother and Holding Co.  Gained national fame at Monterey Pop Festival  Released Cheap Thrills in 1968  Released Pearl in 1970 with Full Tilt Boogie  Songs: Piece of My Heart  Died of overdoes in October 1970 Jimi Hendrix Early years  Born in Seattle, attended Garfield High School  Listened to blues, R&B, Eddie, Cochran while growing up  Enlisted in the army in 1959  By 63, played as back up with Little Richard, Isley Brothers, Wilson Picket, , King Curtis  Broke out on his own and played blues club in New York  Discovered by Chas Chandler (ex­Animal band member)  Chandler, acting as band manager, took him to Europe and hooked him up with Mitch Mitchell and Noel Redding  Founded the Jimi Hendrix Experience  Played in London before coming to America The Three Studio Albums  Considered the best of his work  Covered a wide range of styles and sounds  Illustrates Hendrix’s command of the instrument  Songs: Purple Haze Innovations  Truly a revolutionary musician  Redefined the guitar and guitar performance  Able to explore the master all the sonic force of the instrument  A great showman (behind his back and with his teeth, etc )  Stage show overshadowed the great musician he was  Had the gift and the ability to harness the distortion  Distortion and feedback were not for gimmick  Big hands with long fingers resulted in unusual bar chords  Ability to sound chords and play lead lines at the same time  Preferred to attend jam sessions (enjoyed working with other musician)  Headlined Monterey Pop Festival and other festival  America discovered him at the Monterey Pop Festival  Known for the infamous burning of his guitar Jim Morrison / The Doors  Morrison is looked at as one of the Fathers of Contemporary Rock  Attempted to marry rock with poetry  Influence rockers such as Alice Cooper and even Marilyn Manson  The Doors represented the dread and the gloom,  Themes heard in the music: o Dread and violence o Guilt with no redemption o Miscarriage of love Death  Groups name taken from poet William Blake; “When the doors of perception are cleansed, man will see things as they truly are, infinite.”  Studied film at UCLA  Part of the Venice beach culture  Played local bars on the LA strip  Morison became known for his off­the­wall improvisations on stage  Played on Ed Solomon show, was banned for saying “girl we can’t get much higher” Morrison’s Decline  Antics on stage became a joke  Increase of alcohol consumption resulted in uneven performances  New Haven, Conn. ­ arrested by police for slandering them on stage  Miami, 1969 – arrested for exposing himself on stage  Left for Paris in 1971 seeking inspiration to write poetry  Died of a heart attack in the bathtub (age 27) David Bowie  British artist of theatre rock  Trained in theatre/mime (also accomplished actor)  Ranked among the ten best­selling acts in UK pop history  Music is space­like and theatrical  Ranked #39 on Rolling Stone’s list of the 100 greatest rock artists of all tim  Cross­dressing resulted in Ziggy Stardust (1972)  Ziggy sold in Britain, not in US (too mainstream)  First rock star (since little Richard) to use make­up  First to use large sets on stage (theatrical sets)  First rock artist to publically proclaim bi­sexual  Set the stage for Glam Rock (Lou Reed, Kiss, NY Dolls)  “The chief ingredients of Ziggy stardust was to de­violence the look of Clockwork Orange and Evoke the mystery of Japanese Kabuki Theatre” – Bowie Andy Warhol (1971)  Acoustic song written by Bowie about Warhol  Warhol was one of Bowie’s major inspirations  Warhol was the leading figure in the visual art movement known as “pop art”  Associated with avant­garde theatre  Coined the expression “15 minutes of fame” Space oddity  Influenced by 2001: A Space Odyssey  Fictional astronaut (major tom) who becomes depressed during an outer­space mission  Supposedly released to coincide with the Apollo 11 moon landing  Bowie revisited his Major Tom character in the song Ashes to Ashes and Hallo Spaceboy  The BBC featured the song in its television coverage of the Apollo lunar landing Art Rock (aka. Classical rock)  Blending of classical music with rock  Evolutionary development of rock music  Lyrics use elements of symbolism and imagery  Use or poetry and visual art for enhancement  References to mythology  Use of odd meters and frequent mood/tempo changes  Albums follow a central theme throughout  Meant to be listened to from beginning to end in succession  Use of instrumental not usually associated with rock music  Much of the music not meant to be danced to  Use of synthesizer is frequent  Quotes of classical music themes (and at times rock versions of entire pieces)  Large percentage of art rock bands were British Art Rock vs. Progressive Rock  Art Rock: rock music influenced by classical music  Progressive Rock: rock music influenced by jazz styles Viewed by Rock Purists  Overwrought music  Attempting to legitimize rock music  Aimed to broaden the market of listeners of rock music  Too gimmicky (use of synthesizers)  British acceptance by upper class society  Punk music was a revolt of Art Rock Music  Leading British Art­Rock Bands of the 60’s and 70’s: Moody Blues, Pink Floyd, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, etc Moody Blues  Released in 1967  First of what would be a succession of concept albums  Moved the band away from its early R&B roots  Epic instrumental interludes between songs  Composed in “Arc” form  Programmatic music  Paved the way for other art rock bands Roger Dean  Artist, designer, architect and publisher  Best known for his work on album covers in late 60’s  Covers usually feature exotic, fantastic landscape Tethro Tull  Draws more on folk art­rock style Crimson King  21 century schizoid man Pink Floyd  Experimental “space­rock” band  Inclusion of “concrete music”  Creation of themes result in concepts on a massive scale  Most grandiose albums are form 70’s  Began as a psychedelic band  Syd Barrett­ an important founding member  Barrett played a major role in the music and stylistic direction of the band’s early work  Early stages of group used feedback, sound effects, wild instrumental freak­outs  Developed a London underground following  The band’s name is based on names of two ancient bluesmen­ Pink Anderson and Floyd… The Piper at the Grates of Dawn (67’)  Pink floyd’s debut album (only one made under Syd Barrett’s leadership)  Has been regarded as one of the most influential albums ever made (influenced the psychedelic rock)  Pop psychedelic style and whimsical in nature  Named after chapter 7 of the wind in the willows by Kenneth Grahame (one of Barrett’s favorite children’s books published in 1908)  Makes sure of space travel themes as metaphors for hallucinogenic experiences Dark Side of the Moon  State of the art production  Brought the group to superstar statues in the US  One o the biggest selling albums of all time  Albums themes include conflict, greed, aging, and mental illness  Partly inspired by Barrett’s deteriorating mental state Frank Zappa  One of the most accomplished composers of the rock era  Music combines as understanding of and appreciation of: o 20 century composers: Stravinsky, Stockhausen, Varese o Late 50’s doo­wop R&R o Social satire and stinging wit o Avant­garde jazz o Guitar­heavy rock and R&B o Collages of many styles  Satirist with a wicked sense of humor and absurdity  Lyrics cross over the broadest bounds of taste  Most prolific record­makers of his time (recorded over 60 albums)  His band: The Mother of Invention (formed in 1966)  First album: Freak Out was a key inspiration for Sgt. Pepper  Died of prostate cancer in 1993  Did parodies on classical rock tunes  PMRC (parental advisory explicit lyrics) labeled Led Zeppelin  Formed out of the ash3s of the Yardbirds  Considered by many to be the first heavy metal band  Maintained a mystique with the public  Not liked by older generations  Rarely gave interviews (the press hated that)  Established the concept of album oriented rock  Stairway to Heaven was never a single  Ranked #1 on VH1’s 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock  “The heaviest band of all time” (Rolling Stones Jimmy Page  Along with Hendrix ­ expanded the sonic vocabulary of the electric guitar  Rarely overplayed – supportive of Plant’s vocals  Recording productions passed the competition  Produced a wide bass frequency  Music was big in sound  Later albums (starting with Led Zeppelin III) move to more folk­derived material and Celtic mythology  Death of John Bonham caused the group to disband Black Sabbath  Spawned countless “dark” heavy metal bands  Originally named Earth  Name comes form 1963 horror films  Horror/occult themes were active attempt by band members to scare audiences (much like a horror movie) in order to sell records  Featured lead singer Ozzie Osbourne  Also Tommy Iommi – guitar, Greezer Butler – bass, Bill Ward – drums  Guitarist Tommy Iommi plays with self­made artificial fingertips on fret board hands  1979 – Ozzy was fired because of heavy drug use­ replaced by vocalist Ronnie James Dio  Since late 90s, Sabbath reunited several times both with Ozzy and Dio for various festivals and tours. Mainly Ozzfest  Still perform together today although without drummer Bill Ward  Dio died 2010 (stomach Cancer) Proto­Punk  Never quite fit into the mainstream rock and roll of the late 60s and early 70s  Covered a diverse array of sounds and styles  Edgy, artsy attempt to subvert, ignore, and rewrite rock conventions  Sowed the seeds for the punk revolution of the late 70s  Early punk bands: o MC­5 o The Stooges (Iggy Pop) o Alice Cooper MC­5  Essentially laid the foundation for the emergence of punk  Deafeningly loud and uncompromisingly intense  Politics were as crucial as their music  Led to John Sinclair (leader of the infamous White Panther Party)  Influenced many artists that followed White Panther Party  Far left, anti­racist, white­American political Collective founded in 1968 co­founded by John Sinclair  Formed to support the Black Panthers (not to be confused with the white supremacist group)  Dedicated its energies to cultural revolution  General ideology: fighting for a clean planet, and the freeing of political prisoners”  Other elements such as advocating “rock n’ Roll, dope [legalization of marijuana], sex in the streets and the abolishing of capitalism”  Aligned itself with radical politics Iggy Pop  The “Godfather of Punk Music”  Grew up in mobile home park un Michigan  Roots in blues music  Influenced by the mechanical sounds of the auto plants in Michigan  Carried on the stage drama of Jim Morrison  Early group: The Stooges  Music was simple and loud  Known for going out into the crowd to confront members of the audience  Songs: I Wanna Be Your Dog, Lust for Life  Personality: very weird performer, would cut himself, spread peanut butter on himself, walk on people’s heads, perform shirtless, etc Alice Cooper (Vince Furnier)  Father of Shock Rock  Took Iggy’s show a step further  Influenced by comic books stories and RKO horror movie shows  “Drove a streak in the heart of the love generation”  Traveled with his own magician teacher  Sell­outs at huge arenas  Songs: I’m Eighteen, School’s out (72’)  The infamous Chicken Story: audience tour up chicken and threw parts on stage, media says Cooper bit head off chicken. Lol The Velvet Underground­ New York Proto­Punk  Known as the key Touchstone to punk and new wave  Combination of music and art  Important association with Andy Warhol  Provided music for the Exploding Plastic Inevitable  Viewed as dark and “anti”  Hated any critics  Too extreme for commercial audiences  Blend of high energy rock (punk) and adventurism in the avant­garde  New degree of social realism and sexual kinkiness in the lyrics  Lyrics challenged conventional social standards of the time  Band favored experimentation and a nihilistic outlook  Largely ignored upon release but had become one of the most influential and critically acclaimed rock albums in history.  Appeared #13 in Rolling stones list of 500 greatest albums of all time Waiting for the Man  Written by Lou Reed in 67’  Chronicles of a man purchasing heroin in Harlem  “The Man” is a Puerto Rican drug dealer  One of the band most popular songs  Rolling stones ranked it #159 of list of 500 greatest songs of all time  Reed said, “everything about that song holds true, except the rice.” Heroin  Written by Reed in 64’ (Eight Miles High and Rainy Day Woman #12 and #35 were written in 66’)  Velvet Underground began performing in late 1965  Hardly endorses drug use, nor does it clearly condone it  More troubling in the eye of many listeners  Musically it is every bit as challenging as it is thematically  Few rock songs make better or more intelligent use of dynamics  The slow build through the verses into the manic frenzy of the song’s conclusion sounded like nothing else in rock music at the time Lou Reed  Music achieves balance if compassion and outrageousness  Use of sing­speak vocals and gripping narratives  Helped define street savvy rock and roll  Analyzes subjects of personal experience rarely examined s openly in rock and roll  Willfully evades the mainstream commercial success Walk on the Wild Side  Written in 72’­ recorded on Transformer  Reeds best known solo work  Song received wide radio coverage, despite its touching on “unusual” topics  Subject matter missed by the censors  About a series of individuals and their journey to New York  Superstars at Warhol’s N.Y. studio “Factory”  Cast of characters: Holley Woodlawn, Candy Darling, Joe Dallesandro, Jackie Curtis and Joe Campbell (Sugar Plum Fairy) Punk  Returned rock and roll to the basics  Three chords and a simple melody  Louder/faster, more abrasively than any rock and roll in the past  70’s punk became its own garner  In America, punk remained an underground sensation  Spawned the indie­rock scenes of the 80s (grunge)  Un UK, it was a full scale phenomenon  Two most popular punk bands: o The Ramones (U.S.­New York) o The Sex Pistols (Great Britain) CBGB’s – Country Bluegrass Blues  Important venue for punk and new wave bands  Regulars included: Velvet Underground, Richard Hell (Television), Patti Smith and The Ramones  OMFUG: other music for uplifting gormandizers Richard Hell  One of the original punk rockers to emerge from New York City in early/mid 70’s  Often pointed to as a major influence by other subsequent punk bands  His influences cover music, poetry, and fashion  One of the first punks to wear ripped clothes  Influenced by Velvet Underground  Formed the band called the Neon Boys which later was named Television Television  One of the most creative bands to emerge from New York City in 70’s  Viewed to be the antithesis of the happy culture (hippies)  Back to short hair and street clothes (replaced the extravagant)  Guitarist Tom Verlaine and Richard Lloyd created an influential new guitar vocabulary  Didn’t follow the accepted rock structures of improvisation  Debut album was Marquee Moon (77’) Marquee Moon  Removed the blues while retaining the raw energy of garage rock  Added complex, lyrical solo lines that recalled both jazz and rock  Music went in unconventional directions  Laid the groundwork for many of the guitar­based post­punk pop groups of the late 70‘s and early 80s Patti Smith  Poetry/rock singer who gained notice when reading her poetry in N.Y.C in early 70’s  Improvised lyrics that reflected life in New York  Combined 60’s garage rock with literary writing styles of Rimbaud, Burroughs and Ginsberg  Referred to as the “Godmother of Punk” Horses (1975)  Major influence on the NY punk rock scene  Anticipates new wave music  A hybrid of classical rock and post­beat poetry  Spoken word/musical art form  Ranked #44 on rolling stones magazine list of 500 greatest albums of all time  “Patti Smith danced around to the simple rock & roll songs” The Ramones  Followed Patti Smith and Television  Most popular punk bands  Crystallized the musical ideas of the genre  Sang about youth boredom  Songs were short  Cut rock & roll down to its bare essentials o Four chords o Simple catchy melody o Irresistibly insane lyrics o Very fast tempo “Created something that was rooted in early 60’s, pre­Beatle rock & roll and pop but sounded revolutionary. Their music has been labeled by some as “bubble­gum­punk.” Blitzkrieg Bop  Has become a sports­arena anthem  Named after the German WWII tactic blitzkrieg, meaning lightning war  Pre­British invasion rock & roll played at top volume and twice the speed  Updated 50s dance party music  #92 on Rolling Stones list of the 500 greatest songs of all time Pinhead  Inspired the band after attending a screening of the 1932 film, Freaks  Line in chorus, “Gabba Gabba hey,” based in the line from the film “google gobble one of us”  Somewhat macabre and bizarre ode to the weird  Longtime concert favorite at Ramones show I Want to be Sedated  One of the best known Ramone songs  Played and sung with gleeful abandonment  Included grotesque, absurd, and campy content: “Put me in a wheelchair, Get me to the show Hurry hurry hurry, Before I go Loco I can’t control my fingers, I cant control my toes I wanna be sedated”  #144 on Rolling stones list of top 500 Punk – The British Connection  Brought to the UK by Malcolm McLaren  Capitalized on the look of punk (clothes)  Opened a S & M shop (leather fetish store)  Store patrons became members of the Sex Pistols  McLaren became the Sex Pistols manager The Sex Pistols  Anti­British group  Represented the young bored Brits  Rebelled against the staunch upper class  Thought of as a serious threat to the well­being of the government and monarchy  Viewed as social deviants  Major influence on many bands (including The Clash) Anarchy in the UK (1976)  Sex Pistols debut single  Touched off a social/music firestorm  Created fear about political instability and youth running wild in the streets  Sold over 55,000 copies in Britain before being withdrawn die to the ensuing outery  Pistols were subsequently kicked off the EMI label  #53 on Rolling Stones greatest 500 songs  Bill Grundy Incident: sweared on live TV show hosted by Bill Grundy God Save the Queen (1977)  Bands biggest chart success in Britain  Released during Queen’s Silver Jubilee (25 years)  Lyrics contained gleeful snotty name­calling  Declared the royalty ineffectual and irrelevant  Poses Britain is a country in decline, ignoring the bleak times ahead  Public reaction was swift and hysterical (positive and negative)  Band was even attacked and beaten in the streets of London  #173 on Rolling Stones 500 greatest song of all time Rap  One of the most significant developments of the late 1970s early 1980s  Alternative names from early periods – “Urban contemporary,” “New Jack Swing,” Retronuevo”  Actual birthplace debated, most agree Rap first started to appear in the Bronx, NY late 1970s  First versions based on simple chant, call­and­respond rhymes over DJ cutting and scratching alongside live bands playing familiar disco beats  Grew into cultural revolution that affected fashion, dance, art (particularly graffiti art), language/slang DJ Kool Here  Considered by most to be the Father of Hip Hop  Credited as the disc jockey who introduced the music basics sound  Transplanted Jamaican  Would set up two or more turntables and mix only the hottest sections of several records together, creating heavier beats  Rhythmic announcements over mic to break­dancers became what we now know as rap Sugar Hill Gang  one of the first rap hits – “Rappers Delight” – featured the phrase “say hip, hop, you don’t stop” leads to use of the term “Hip Hop” (1979) Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five  Helped move rap’s lyrics toward a new emphasis on social commentary  1982 song “The Message” – “Its like a jungle sometimes/it makes me wonder/how I keep form going under” Run DMC  First classic rap album –Ru­DMC (1984)  Harder edges delivery than previous rap albums  Stripped backing tracks down to minimalist crunching beats  Many previous rappers approached look and style form more costumed, almost fantasy angle.  Run­DMC made being “real” or “hard” the new credo  No musical or verbal concessions to pop convention Walk This Way  Raps biggest hit to date (1986)  Run DMC;s remake of Aerosmith’s 1977 hit  Song and video both include members of Aerosmith performing  Considered by most historians to be the mainstream breakthrough for rap Beastie Boys  Three bratty white ex­punk rockers form suburbia  Album License to Ill (1987) – introduced the sound of sampling to a wide audience  Utilized new technology that used computers to replace older DJ cutting techniques  First rap album to reach #1 on billboards  Rap songs with catchy pop hooks  Featured song “you’ve got to fight (for your right)” Public Enemy  One of the most influential groups in rap  Replaced boasting and joking with activism  Wanted to help create new leadership role for the African­American community  One of raps masterpiece album – It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back (1989)  Group featured current hip­hop icons Chuck D and Flavor Flav  One of their biggest hits, “Fight the Power” incorporates various samples and allusions to Africa­American culture, including civil rights exhortations, black church services, and the music of James Brown  Originally released as a single on the Motown label  Featured on Spike Lee’s movie Do the Right Thing

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Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications
Edition: 10
Author: Ralph Petrucci
ISBN: 9780132064521

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 18 from chapter: 2 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:52PM. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780132064521. Since the solution to 18 from 2 chapter was answered, more than 292 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, edition: 10. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 28 chapters, and 3268 solutions. The answer to “The two oxides of carbon described on page 38 were CO and Another oxide of carbon has 1.106 g of oxygen in a 2.350 g sample. In what ratio are carbon and oxygen atoms combined in molecules of this third oxide? Explain.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 42 words.

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The two oxides of carbon described on page 38 were CO and