Refer to the periodic table on the inside front cover and indicate (a) the most nonmetallic element; (b) the transition metal with lowest atomic number; (c) a metalloid whose atomic number is exactly midway between those of two noble gas elements.
Terms and Definitions Maternal-fetal incompatibility- when the mother’s body produces antibodies against the fetus This should not exist because it is dangerous to babies however it continues to be selected for, therefore there must be some sort of selective advantage that is keeping ABO in the population. o The selective advantage is that it provides protection against epidemic disease. If one blood type is susceptible to a particular disease, the other is likely to survive. Type II diabetes- is extremely common in most cultures today because we are not designed to consume so many calories Diabetes and obesity are adaptive advantages Rhesus Factor- RH factor is dangerous for babies, no diseases associated with it RH- females are more likely to give birth to fat babies the medical data suggests that babies with diabetic mothers are born fatter which in some cases is an adaptive advantage during times of famine and malnutrition What is the adaptive advantage Associated with pregnancy type II diabetes (give birth to big babies) off-sets famine environment maternal-fetal incompatibility is a high price to pay for this adaptive advantage Balanced polymorphism- alleles must add up to the maximum number of carriers; the difference between alleles equals the maximum Vitamin D- is a hormone (not necessarily a vitamin) that regulates calcium absorption and mineralization of the skeleton The consequence of low calcium production is rickets (most commonly in children) and osteomalacia (most common in adults) Bergman’s rule states that heat-adapted mammal populations will have smaller bodies than cold-adapted mammal populations small bodies have more surface area, facilitating more rapid heat dissipation large bodies have less surface area thus conserving heat in cold climates human populations adapted to hot climates tend to have small narrow bodies Ex: Inuits living in extreme cold stress environments Allen’s rule states that heat-adapted mammal populations will have long limbs Long limbs maximize the body’s surface area promoting heat dissipation Cold adapted mammals will have short limbs which minimize the body’s surface area promoting heat conservation Ex: Indigenous people of Australia are the most “spidery-looking” people with their long limbs Hypothermia- low body temperature, consequence of extreme cold stress environment Point mutation- the smallest possible mistake that can occur on DNA Endemic disease- a disease that never goes away; it is always in the environment; it is a constant selective factor Epidemic disease- a disease which surfaces for a certain amount of time but then goes away until it resurfaces again Vasoconstriction- decrease in blood vessel diameter in order reduce blood flow and heat loss from the body’s core Vasodilation- the initial response to heat, it dilates/expends the blood vessels near the body’s surface to allow the blood to flow more freely away from the body’s core Asthma and allergies- disease of modern life, adaptive advantages the system that generates an allergic response is different from a disease or bacterial response; “cannon to kill a fly” allergies are common today because we are in an environment in which we are no longer normal so our bodies respond dramatically as they would have long ago Parasites- normal to the human condition because they are part of the human condition, our body’s are designed to protect against them this is why we have allergies and extreme allergic reactions because our bodies identify them the same way they did when parasites like worms were a regular condition Lactose intolerance- normal human condition; designed to not drink mother’s milk after a certain age we no longer have the enzyme to break down the sugar in mil populations that have the longest history of cattle keeping have higher lactose tolerance Mitochondrial DNA- controls cell functions such as cell death, metabolism, and holds junk DNA passed through the matrilineal lineage Nuclear (Y) DNA- uses DNA from the Y chromosome, paternal inheritance Polar T3 complex- more efficient than shivering because shivering is exhausting only kicks in when you’re eating a low protein diet selective advantage for a hormone that produces body heat without causing physical fatigue increases metabolic rate Inuits have a genetic mutation that allows them to constantly produce this protein Thyroid Gland- one of the largest endocrine glands in the body Controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and determines how sensitive the body should be to other hormones Goiter- a consequence of iodine deficiency, associated with mental retardation cretinism, ADHD 13 points lower on IQ tests, joint stiffness, lethargy o iodine is used in the production of hormones by the thyroid gland, regulates the conversion of fat to energy stabilizing our body weight, found in dairy products and proteins PTC tasting- substance tasted in class is part of a chemical which blocks iodine absorption o The “fussy eater” hypothesis- we are hardwired to avoid foods that inhibit iodine absorption Cystic fibrosis- inherited disease; a two allele disease; produce too much mucus People with this disease essentially drown in bodily fluids why are there so many carriers Because it is advantageous; bacteria can not stick to your internal organs and make you sick Acclimate- occurs at the individual level unlike developmental adaptation, it can occur anytime during a person’s life this change is not inherited and can be reversed (ex: an adult living in a high altitude environment or exposure to sunlight resulting in tanning) Acclimtaize- is a developmental adaptation this is what children are capable of doing which will allow them to adapt for life rather than temporarily Hypoxia- oxygen deprivation Medical consequences- Saroche and Monge’s disease Plasticity- the ability of one to change physically/adapt to an environment ex: acclimate and acclimatization Sweating- evaporation of sweat cools the body’s surface Eskimos/Inuits- example of the Bergman Allen Theory for cold stress short limbs and round deep chests retain heat better Sundaland- land mass now mostly submerged in the ocean which connected south Asia to Australia Ainu- Ainu are the aboriginal people of Asia (Jomon culture 10000 to 300 BC) Modern Japanese (Yayoi) are a hybrid of Ainu and mainland Asia Haplogroups and Haplotypes- mutation in junk DNA; specific mutation that characterizes an ethnic group; point mutations Hypertension- result of too much salt consumption, being able to retain salt is an adaptive advantage in a hot dry environment high blood pressure, excessive pressure strains blood vessels, damages blood vessel walls, stress kidneys leading to kidney failure, clotting more likely African Americans seem to have a pre-disposition, due to higher blood pressure, higher sodium retention, African populations are equatorial, so in order to stay cool you must be able to sweat efficiently, meaning stay cool but not dehydrate. Physiological adaptation to heat stress, retention of salt Humid Heat Stress Sweating is ineffective Solution- don’t get over heated Generate little body heat by having a little body o Aborigines of the tropical forest are Pygmies (Africa) and Negritos (southeast Asia and Australia) o Negritos are the Asian equivalent of African Pigmies (they have a mutation that impairs production of growth hormone), humid heat stress accounts for body type, forest/jungle body type Monge’s disease- high altitude condition Zoonoses- disease we have acquired from domesticated animals; prime mover of natural selection Bushman- oldest lineage, have been genetically isolated nasal shape- related to humidity and heat (two different things) purpose of nose is primarily to humidify the air environment determines nasal shape