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(5.1) Evaluate.1 -324

Intermediate Algebra | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780321785046 | Authors: Elayn El Martin-Gay ISBN: 9780321785046 180

Solution for problem Review Chapter 5

Intermediate Algebra | 6th Edition

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Intermediate Algebra | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780321785046 | Authors: Elayn El Martin-Gay

Intermediate Algebra | 6th Edition

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Problem Review

(5.1) Evaluate.1 -324

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1/26 Why do we use gesture • When comm is difficult or impossible (inside a burning house- firefighter needs to communicate with others) • To substitute for speech when speech might be regarded as too explicit or delicate- gestures are rarely challenged • When the spoken utterance, taken by itself, is incomplete o “I need this group over here to move over there” (while pointing) *wouldn't make sense w/o pointing motion • to add an additional component to the utterance that is not represented by the words Speech and gesture • body movements tend to bunch up at the beginning of phonetic clauses- basic elements of speech • there are fewer body movements during fluent phonetic clauses • there are more body movements during dysfluent clauses • body movements occur at the beginning of clauses • gestures that occur at the beginning of clausess often carry info about the word choices Illustrators and Conditions • Face to face(illustrators increase) • Complicated(increase) • Familiar(decrease) Illustrators in face to face comm • Subjects described drawing of a skirt face to face or over the telephone o Face to face mostly gestures o Over phone- still uses gestures “It looks like a table” Gesture and Recall • 6-7 year old children • pirate game • interviewed 14-17 days later • some allowed to gesture, some instructed to gesture (“use your hands and body”), others could NOT gesture (“memory apron”- tells the kids it will help them remember) • children instructed to gesture provided more correction information than other 2 conditions • no gesture= least information • gesture reduces processing demands • offloading allows for more allocation to retrieval Grounding thoughts in Action • Tower of Hanoi task • Then described how they solved the problem • Researchers switched smallest disk so that it was too heavy to lift with one hand • Task performed again • The more the switch group’s gestured depicted moving the smallest disk one-handed, the worse they performed • When gestures are no longer compatible with the action constraints of task, problem solving suffers Gesture and Word Retrieval • Degraded images (airplane, microwave) • When viewing them, subjects make gestures that are congruent with the image (flat hand with airplane) • Or incongruent with the image (clenched fist with airplane) 1/28 Gesture and Computational Task Performance • Kids 7-10 yrs watched video taped math lessons • Speech only • Speech + gesture (sweeping motion one side of problem to other) • Kids did better with speech + gesture Decoding gestures • Emblems: very well shared; agreement between encoders and decoders • Illustrators: degree to which there is shared meaning is unclear (the more iconic they are the easier they are to understand) • Adaptors: the most difficult to decode; interpretation is probably idiosyncratic Interactive aspects of gesture • Interactive phenomena- behavior of one person has a reliable impact on another- when you make a stop sign with your hand and someone actually stops o Postural congruence- mimicking each other (subconsciously)(sitting on a park bench, each person has arm on bench with hand on face, babies, primates) Interactive Aspects of gesture and Body Movement • Postural congruence • Synchrony • Sensitivity to behavioral mimicry- sitting in movie theater and backing up during violent scene • Greater mimicry of in-groups (vs. outgroup) and liked (vs. disliked) actors o Mirror neurons-brain cells that respond equally when performing vs. Observing same action (eating pizza yourself vs. watching someone else eat pizza- neurons act the same) o First discovered in Monkeys- Neurons in brains of monkeys who grabbed object vs. observed another grabbing same object o Human documentation o Experience of disgust vs, observation of disgust o Touch on upper leg vs. observation of touch to upper leg o Empathy: “experience” through observation The Nature of Language • Simplify the original material- “dog” could mean Retriever, Chihuahua… “Home” could mean big house, small house, apartment, sorority house… • Organize so that relationship among elements is clear- syntax- set of rules on how to organize items. Ex: adverb before noun • Restructure the whole for easy transmission American Sign Language • 12 basic hand positions • 19 configurations • 24 movements • involves a lot of facial animation • loose syntax (organization) Indian Sign Language • 18 hand configurations • 24 movements • no facial expression • very loose syntax Discrete Behavior– more language like quality • Emblems • Kinesic markers • Eye contact • Smile • Nod • Head shake • Arms akimbo (arms on hips) • Leg position (open/closed) Continuous Behavior- less language like • Gesture that accompanies speech • Posture shifting • Forward/backward lean • Body orientation • Adaptors

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Textbook: Intermediate Algebra
Edition: 6
Author: Elayn El Martin-Gay
ISBN: 9780321785046

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(5.1) Evaluate.1 -324