Suppose that n integers are drawn at random and with replacement from the integers 1, 2, . . . , N . That is, each sampled integer has probability 1/N of taking on any of the values 1, 2, . . . , N , and the sampled values are independent.
a Find the method-of-moments estimator
UNIT 3 STUDY GUIDE ATP- cleaving phosphate and phosphorylation to drive endergonic process Photosynthesis Glucose and ATP has a high lot of high chemical potential energy because the bonds ATP Phosphate groups are very repelling and are unstable bonds Fermentation- anaerobic path to recycle NADH to NAD+ to perform more glycolysis and generate ATP Know where everything occurs Glycolysis- cytoplasm Grooming of Pyruvate- mitochondrial matrix Citric Acid Cycle- Mitochondrial matrix ETC- inner mitochondrion membrane Chemiosmosis- inner mitochondrial membrane Proteins are in inner membrane space Be fluent in numbers Glycolysis- 2 NADH, 2 ATP Pyruvate oxidation- 2 NADH One turn of cycle- 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP Whole cycle- 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2ATP Chemiosmosis- 28 ATP All ATP is made by substrate level phosphorylation or oxidative NADH- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide FADH2- Flavin adenine dinucleotide Short answers about cellular respiration: Overall production of cellular resiration Heat & ATP GLYCOYSIS 9 steps catalyzed by separate enzymes Single Glucose (6 Carbon) goes in 2 G3P end product of investment and start of payoff phase 2 Net ATP, 2 NADH and 2 (3-carbon) pyruvates The 2 NADH will either go a route of NADH or FADH2 and this will cause a change in the end product of ATP because FADH produces less energy CITRIC ACID CYCLE- Hans Kreb 2 Turns=cycle Coenzyme A comes in and binds to Oxaloacetate to make Citrate Gets oxidized to a 5 carbon and then to a 4 carbon and then bonds get rearranged to other 4 carbon molecules and when this happens ETC- Peter Mitchell Cristae are folds in mitochondrial membrane to create more space for ETC 2 does not move protons—brings in FADH and is reason why we don’t know if its 32-38 Mobile electron proteins- move energy molecules between protein systems Carrier molecules in each protein Electrons transported and Hydrogen ions or protons pumped out and create gradient bc they are charged and cannot get through on their own Cyanide and CO-- CHEMIOSMOSIS ATP Synthase is protein that pumps H+ through which synthesizes ATP About 28 ATP made FADH then it would be less than 28 Cellular Respiration-- Exergonic bc it releases heat and ATP and then is used to do endergonic reactions in the cell Oxidation and Reduction Exergonic- absorbs energy Endergonic- absorbs energy Metabolism- total of an organism’s chemical reactions Cofactor- inorganic that helps enzyme; copper, iron, zinc Coenzyme- organic that helps enzyme; vitamin Essay- enzymes in general competitive, catalytic cycle, everything from 5.13- end of chapter Catalytic cycle Feedback Inhibition Way to stop production of 4—too much 4 so feedback inhibitor Multistep, multi-enzyme catalyzed metabolic that inhibit pathway— feedback inhibition Either competitive inhibitor- end product competes with substrate; product looks exactly like 1; product four acts as competitive Sucrose and sucrose—something shaped like maltose will be made to stop Noncompetitive- product random that fits into allosteric site Something that fit into maltase’s allosteric site (square) would be made Enzymes bond using hydrogen bonds so that they can come undone if need be Reversible enzyme inhibitor- ibuprofen and penicillin Covalent is bad—pesticides, V2 rocket gas that bonds to enzymes Denaturation- pH, temp, salt Temp- denatures enzyme pH- dentures enzyme and cause the substrate to enzyme bond to not occur salt- breaks the bonds in the enzyme and denatures it Activation energy with and without enzyme