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In analyzing the performance of a thermal system, the

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman ISBN: 9780470501962 111

Solution for problem 1.86 Chapter 1

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

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Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

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Problem 1.86

In analyzing the performance of a thermal system, the engineer must be able to identify the relevant heat transfer processes. Only then can the system behavior be properly quantified. For the following systems, identify the pertinent processes, designating them by appropriately labeled arrows on a sketch of the system. Answer additional questions that appear in the problem statement. (a) Identify the heat transfer processes that determine the temperature of an asphalt pavement on a summer day. Write an energy balance for the surface of the pavement. (b) Microwave radiation is known to be transmitted by plastics, glass, and ceramics but to be absorbed by materials having polar molecules such as water. Water molecules exposed to microwave radiation align and reverse alignment with the microwave radiation at frequencies up to 109 s 1 , causing heat to be generated. Contrast cooking in a microwave oven with cooking in a conventional radiant or convection oven. In each case, what is the physical mechanism responsible for heating the food? Which oven has the greater energy utilization efficiency? Why? Microwave heating is being considered for drying clothes. How would the operation of a microwave clothes dryer differ from a conventional dryer? Which is likely to have the greater energy utilization efficiency? Why? (c) To prevent freezing of the liquid water inside the fuel cell of an automobile, the water is drained to an onboard storage tank when the automobile is not in use. (The water is transferred from the tank back to the fuel cell when the automobile is turned on.) Consider a fuel cellpowered automobile that is parked outside on a very cold evening with T 20 C. The storage tank is initially empty at Ti,t 20 C, when liquid water, at atmospheric pressure and temperature Ti,w 50 C, is introduced into the tank. The tank has a wall thickness tt and is blanketed with insulation of thickness tins. Identify the heat transfer processes that will promote freezing of the water. Will the likelihood of freezing change as the insulation thickness is modified? Will the likelihood of freezing depend on the tank walls thickness and material? Would freezing of the water be more likely if plastic (low thermal conductivity) or stainless steel (moderate thermal conductivity) tubing is used to transfer the water to and from the tank? Is there an optimal tank shape that would minimize the probability of the water freezing? Would freezing be more likely or less likely to occur if a thin sheet of aluminum foil (high thermal conductivity, low emissivity) is applied to the outside of the insulation? W (d) Your grandmother is concerned about reducing her winter heating bills. Her strategy is to loosely fit rigid polystyrene sheets of insulation over her double-pane windows right after the first freezing weather arrives in the autumn. Identify the relevant heat transfer processes on a cold winter night when the foamed insulation sheet is placed (i) on the inner surface and (ii) on the outer surface of her window. To avoid condensation damage, which configuration is preferred? Condensation on the window pane does not occur when the foamed insulation is not in place. (e) There is considerable interest in developing building materials with improved insulating qualities. The development of such materials would do much to enhance energy conservation by reducing space heating requirements. It has been suggested that superior structural and insulating qualities could be obtained by using the composite shown. The material consists of a honeycomb, with cells of square cross section, sandwiched between solid slabs. The cells are filled with air, and the slabs, as well as the honeycomb matrix, are fabricated from plastics of low thermal conductivity. For heat transfer normal to the slabs, identify all heat transfer processes pertinent to the performance of the composite. Suggest ways in which this performance could be enhanced.(g) A double-glazed, glass fire screen is inserted between a wood-burning fireplace and the interior of a room. The screen consists of two vertical glass plates that are separated by a space through which room air may flow (the space is open at the top and bottom). Identify the heat transfer processes associated with the fire screen.

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Notes for 308 Specially Designed Instruction (SDI) and Related Services:  SDI - Additions, deletions, changes and/or modifications that will assist a student in being successful with or within… o The curriculum o The learning environment o Their IEP goals  Related Services – additional things a student requires to be successful that must be delivered by a specific provider o Transportation, speech and language, OT, PT, etc Educational Placement  Explanation of the extent, if any, to which the student will NOT participate with students without disabilities in regular education class  Explanation of the extent, if any, to which the student will NOT participate with students without disabilities in the general education curriculum.  TYPE of support o Learning Support o Autistic Support o Life Skills Support o Blind/Visual Impaired Support o Deaf and Hard of Hearing Support o Emotional Support o Multiple Disabilities Support o Physical Support o Speech and Language Support  AMOUNT of special education support in a day o Itinerant - 20% or < o Supplemental - more than 20% but less than 80% o Full-time – more than 80%  LOCATION of the support o School District Building o Is it the student’s regular school  If not, why Educational Placement vs. Educational Environment  Placement = where  Environment = with whom  The % of time a student spends in a regular education environment could be 100%, although they could receive full-time (100%) special education support if they have a PCA

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Textbook: Introduction to Heat Transfer
Edition: 6
Author: Theodore L. Bergman
ISBN: 9780470501962

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In analyzing the performance of a thermal system, the