Lumber Industry The number of board-feet (bf) that can be obtained from a log depends on the diameter, in inches, of the log and its length. The following table shows the number of boardfeet of lumber that can be obtained from a log that is 32 feet long. a. Find a linear model for the number of board-feet as a function of log diameter. b. Explain the meaning of the slope of this line in thecontext of the problem. c. Using this model, how many board-feet of lumber can be obtained from a log 32 feet long with a diameter of 19 inches? Diameter (in.) bf16 18018 24020 30022 360
Communication process by which individuals use symbols, signs, and behaviorist exchange information 6 characteristics of communication: 1.relies on symbols 2.requires a shared code 3.it is linked to culture and co-culture 4.it may be intentional or spontaneous 5.it requires a channel 6. it is a transactional process: you influence others while they influence you Competent communication model is transactional: the individuals communicate simultaneously, sending and receiving messages at the same moment in time, within a relational context, a situational context, and a cultural context primacy effect- in a sequence or list, the things listed first will most likely be remembered than the things at the end Perception a cognitive process through which we interpret our experiences and come to our own unique understandings Influences on perception- culture and point of view Communication processing- means by which you gather, organize, and evaluate the information you receive Selective perception- the biased nature of perception which is active, critical thought Self-fulfilling prophecy- a prediction that causes an individual to alter his or her behavior in a way that makes the prediction more likely to occur Schemas- mental structures that put together related bits of information Challenges with schemas: 1. mindlessness- when you process information passively- reduced cognitive, activity, inaccurate recall, and uncritical evaluation 2. selective perception- the biased nature of perception which you gather, organize, and evaluate 3. undue influence- this occurs when you give credibility or importance to something shown or said than should be the case Attribution- personal characteristics that are used to explain behavior. We make attributions to try to explain the causes of a behavior and to justify your perceptions, thus giving you greater control of the situation. Fundamental attribution error- explains our tendency to overemphasize the internal and underestimate the external causes of behaviors we observe in others Self-serving bias- holds that we usually attribute our own success to internal factors (I got an A because I’m smart) while we explain our failures by attributing them to situational or external effects Interaction appearance theory- helps explain how people change their attributions of someone , particularly their physical attractiveness, the more they interact Social comparison theory- the tendency to compare ourselves to others as we develop our ideas about ourselves. It can also influence how we think about ourselves and what Symbolic Interactionism George Herbert Mead- developed this theory of symbolic interactionism Signs- they are concrete and many times universal Symbols- they are abstractions of reality Semantic Triangle= CONCEPT (top of triangle) refers to REFERENT -> SYMBOL which symbolizes the concept MEANING= are in people, not in words -humans act towards people or things on the basis of the meanings they assign to those people or things LANGUAGE= meaning arises out of social interaction -the extent of knowing is based on the extent of naming -language is confining and expansive THOUGHT= minding -we put ourselves in the place of others SELF= reflecting in a looking glass The generalized other is a concept introduced by George Herbert Mead into the social sciences, and used especially in the field of symbolic interactionism. -It is the general notion that a person has of the common expectations that others have about actions and thoughts within a particular society, and thus serves to clarify their relation to the other as a representative member of a shared social system. EX: Any time that an actor tries to imagine what is expected of them, they are taking on the perspective of the generalized other. social construction= what is real in our worlds is a function of how symbols come together with our social relationships and texts to create our realities -physical realities are often secondary to social ones -context defines reactions (link to perception) -taken for grantedness of our social realities -embedded ideologies and grand narratives Living by language (expansive/confining)- Metaphor (borrowed meanings have consequences)- considered to be The role of narrative (why do we tell stories/why do we prefer certain narrative structures)-we tell stories in order to better understand our lives and the series of ups and downs or the struggle of everyday life Rhetorics of reality- Power is embedded in communication practice (and in the control of the construction of reality)- Constructing identities- Theories and Research (1) Theory - provide a simple abstract understanding of the communication process - go beyond describing a single event , by providing a means where all events can be understood - at the most basic level, theories can provide us with lens that we can view the world - help you understand things more clearly, but can also distort your view -three types of theory 1. common sense theory a. “theory- in – use” b. created by an individual's own experience or developed from knowledge from others c. beware of common sense backfiring d. ex- never date someone you work with- it will end badly 2. Working Theory a. Generalizations made in particular professions about the best techniques for doing something b. Are more systematic than common sense theory because they represent a “agreed on” ways of doing something c. Ex- to get a journal published, you should write it in the journalistic style 3. Scholarly Theory a. What we will be mainly focusing on b. The system has gone under systematic research- and EVERYONE can use it not just “scholars” c. Provide more thorough accurate and abstract communication and explanations d. Downside is that they are more complex, and more difficult to understand e. Ex- the media does not tell us what to think, but what to think about (agenda setting theory) (2) What is a good theory - We evaluate the usefulness of a theory - Make sure you broaden your “scope” – even though it might not be useful to you, might be useful for others - 5 ways to evaluate if it is a good or a useful theory 1. Accuracy - if the theory works - has research supported that the theory works the way it says it does 2. Practicality - can it be used to address real world problems - a theory with more applications is better than theory without practical uses. 3. Succinctness - is the theory description concise - formulated in the fewest steps possible 4. Consistency - most useful theories have both internal and external consistency - internal: ideas of the theory are built logically on each other - external: coherence with other widely held theories - is it cohesive within itself and other theories 5. Acuity - ability of a theory to provide insight with an intricate issue - can they explain a difficult situation 3. What is research - the methodical gathering of data as well as careful reporting of the results of the data analysis - primary research- reported by the person who conducted it - secondary research- reported by someone else other than the person who conducted it - primary is typically valued more than secondary 4. Difference between qualitative and quantitative A. Quantitative - used in hard sciences, and social science - rely on numbers and statistics - seek to predict what will happen with large groups - allows to make generalizations B. Qualitative - used by humanities - reject limitations on individual interpretations - uses verbal depictions - centers on a description rather than a generalization - usually uses surveys and analyses Verbal Communication: ONLY FOCUS ON THE FIRST TWO OF THIS denotation- the meaning of a word- it’s basic, consistently accepted definition connotation- the emotional or attitudinal response people have to it grammar- the system of rules of a language that serves as a mechanism for the creation of words, phrases , and sentences (helps you communicate clearly) euphemism- inoffensive words or phrases that substitute for terms that might be perceived as upsetting jargon- technical language that is specific to members of a given profession or interest group or people who share a hobby biased language- labels that are infused with subtle meanings that influence our perceptions about the subject (example: “sweetie” or “dear” referring to elderly people) politically correct language- when language openly excludes certain groups or implies something negative about them, we often attempt to replace the biased language with more neutral terms (example: firefighter, police officer, and chairperson replaced the sexist terms, fireman, chairman, and policeman) Linguistic Relativism- holds that that speakers of different languages have different views of the world Linguistic Determinism- the idea that language influences how we see the world KNOW THESE 3 FOR SURE Expressive MDL- concerned primarily with self- expression; has a hard time holding back their thoughts, values openness, honesty and clarity Conventional MDL- concerned primarily with appropriateness; they believe that there are guidelines for how one should act Rhetorical MDL- primarily uses communication as a powerful tool; they are attentive to how others communicate to predict problems in the future On next exam- Phillipsen- he was a naturalist who listened, watched, and recorded communicative conduct in a culture's natural. He invented speech codes theory. Teamsters vs. Nacirema-An often cited study, the "Teamsterville" study, was conducted by Philipsen in Chicago. The study took place in the late 1960s and early 1970s. According to Miller, the "Teamsterville" nickname was given to the area of Chicago studied because the primary job of the area's men was truck driving. For three years, Philipsen spoke with everyone he could; from a kid on the corner to the women on their front porches, and men in bars. Although the people all spoke English, Philipsen could recognize the differences between their speech codes and his. As a follow up, another study, the "Nacirema" (American spelled backwards) study was conducted that contrasted the speech of Teamsterville with that of the average American.  The typical Nacirema speech is a "generalized U.S. conversation that is carried at the public level and at the interpersonal level in face-to-face interaction." Ethnography- involves the researcher immersing himself or herself into a particular culture or context to understand communication rules and meanings for that culture or context. Criticisms of speech codes-Philipsen addresses the criticisms of Speech Code Theory by saying that: 1. "Speech Codes Theory does not account for manifestations of power in discourse. This is a matter of omission in the theoretical assumptions, methodological framework, and examination of fieldwork materials. 2. Speech Codes Theory treats culture as overly deterministic. A corollary to this is that it reifies culture as a static entity. This is a strong force of conduct within communication. It has a social perspective that directly addresses the issue of "a universal possibility in any body of discourse of manifestations of power, solidarity, intimacy" and other important aspects of social life. UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION THEORY -Berger & Calabrese 1975: assumptions and axioms of human behavior -Three prior condition: 1)anticipation of future interaction suggests you are more motivated to reduce uncertainty 2)INCENTIVE VALUE: prompted to learn more about someone when the individual has potential to provide you with rewards or even punishment 3)DEVIANCE: if a person is odd, eccentric, bizarre, or unusual that counters your expectations, URT suggests that individuals will be more likely to reduce their uncertainty TYPES OF UNCERTAINTY: Behavioral Uncertainty: takes into account your insecurity about which actions are appropriate in a given situation. EX: a new job, questioning how they should act in that given situation. Cognitive Uncertainty: are unsure as to what to think about someone or something. It doubts your ability to pinpoint attitudes/beliefs. EX: taking a compliment. AXIOMS OF UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION: -URT seeks to explain and predict the ways in which individuals use communication to reduce ambiguity. -The process of reducing uncertainty is predicted on eight axioms (self truths) 1)verbal communication with partner increases and level of uncertainty about that person decreases 2)as welcoming non-verbal expressions increases, uncertainty decreases (vice versa) 3)the greater your uncertainty the more information seeking behaviors you use, less uncertainty = seeks less information 4)uncertainty in a relationship increases, the intimacy level of communication content decreases (vice versa) 5)the more uncertain you are, the more you will use reciprocal communication strategies (vice versa) 6)more similarities = decrease in uncertainty, perceiving dissimilarities leads to increased uncertainty 7)uncertainty decreases, liking increases (vice versa) 8)shared communication networks, or shared ties = less uncertain, no common relations = increased uncertainty 3 ASSUMPTIONS GUIDE THE UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION FRAMEWORK 1)Berger and Calabrese maintained that the primary goal of communication is to minimize uncertainties humans have about the world and the people there in. 2)Individuals experience uncertainty on a regular basis and that the experience of uncertainty is an unpleasant one. 3)Berger and Calabrese assume that communication is the primary vehicle for reducing uncertainty.