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Solved: A rectangular array of real numbers that can be

College Algebra | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781133963028 | Authors: Ron Larson ISBN: 9781133963028 204

Solution for problem 7.1.1 Chapter 7

College Algebra | 9th Edition

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College Algebra | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781133963028 | Authors: Ron Larson

College Algebra | 9th Edition

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Problem 7.1.1

A rectangular array of real numbers that can be used to solve a system of linear equations is called a ________.

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SUBSTANCE USE Alcohol Use in American Culture ● In Colonial America alcohol was viewed positively ○ A gift from God ● Believed to be associated with good health, due to a lack of clean water ○ Alcohol abstainers had to pay life insurance company rates 10% higher than rates of drinkers ● A brewery was one of harvard’s first construction projects so that a steady supply of beer could be served in the student dining halls The Temperance Movement ● 1790 = Benjamin Rush suggests that drunkenness is an uncontrollable disease ○ Alcohol itself begins to be seen as the cause of abuse ○ Many came to view it as “demon run” ● 1830 = the American Temperance Society became the Abstinence Society ○ The only way to prevent drunkenness was to eliminate the consumption of alcohol entirely ○ Any consumption is alcohol abuse The Birth of Alcoholism ● 1849 = Magnus Huss creates “alcoholism” ● 1885 = International conferences devoted to temperance activities, scientific research, and alcohol control policy begin in Antwerp ○ Research tied to the temperance movement ● Women’s Christian Temperance Union ○ 1887 ○ Major force pushing for prohibition Alcohol Prohibition ● After the Harrison Act, the political climate was ripe for alcohol prohibition ○ 1914 law against opium ○ 1920 = Prohibition the “noble experiment” begins, touted as the magical solution to the nation’s crime, violence, and other ills ● Scientific “facts” put forth by the Women’s Christian Temperance ○ Majority of beer drinkers die from dropsy ○ When alcohol passes down the throat it burns off the skin leaving it bare ○ The heart is in danger of giving out after the first dose ■ Has to take drink after drink to keep the heart going ○ Turns the blood to water The End of Prohibition ● 1933 = end ● 1.5 million barrels were consumed during the first 24 hours after ● Was prohibition a failure ○ Yes, in preventing alcohol use and problems ○ The largest impact was to change the drinking institutions of America ■ Ended the era of saloons ■ Began the era of cocktail lounges and cabarets ■ Drinking became more sophisticated Marijuana Temperance Movement ● Harry Anslinger ○ After alcohol prohibition ended, started a campaign against marijuana ○ Claimed that it led to violence and insanity ○ Reefer madness ● AMA opposed again in 1937 but cannabis was criminalized nonetheless in the Tax Act Post Prohibition Views on Alcoholism ● Focused on the individual rather than the alcohol ● Disease model ○ Alcoholism is a disease like any other ○ Takes blame away from the individual ● Alcoholic personality ○ Alcoholism due to a defect in character The Disease Model ● Alcoholism is a disease and individuals with it must completely abstain from alcohol ● People without the disease can drink with impunity ● Acceptance ○ Late 1930s = gained widespread acceptance ■ With the help of researchers at Yale ○ 1946 = Jellinek put forth theory that only the true alcoholic manifests the inability to drink moderately ○ 1956 = American Medical Association formally endorses the disease model, reinforcing abstinence-only treatment Alcoholic’s Anonymous (AA) ● 1935 = founded by Bill W. and Dr. Bob S ● 1939 = the fellowship published the text “Alcoholics Anonymous” or the “Big Book” ● Dr. Bob was integrally involved in implementing AA in hospital settings where they remain prominent today Research on Prevailing Models of Alcoholism ● Late 1970s = both sides in the debate over controlled-drinking agree that this therapy is inapplicable to physically dependent alcoholics ● Research does, however, support controlled-drinking as the superior treatment to abstinence for less severely alcoholic clients (problem drinkers) Concern Turns to Illicit Drugs ● The 60s and 70s saw the emergence of marijuana as a widely used recreational drug ○ LSD and speed to lesser degrees ○ Associated with the counter culture and protest against the war in Vietnam ● Nixon commissioned a scientific report on marijuana ○ Shafer Commission concluded marijuana was relatively benign ○ Nixon buried his report because it did not support his position Drug Epidemics of Past 30 Years ● Powder cocaine = 80s ● Crack cocaine = 90s ● Crystal Meth and Ecstasy = past 15-20 years ● The most recent epidemic ○ Marijuana ■ Use tripled among 8th graders ■ Use doubled among 10th graders ■ Use nearly doubled among 12th graders ○ MDMA (ecstasy) ■ Use has roughly doubled in all age groups ○ Crack ■ Use nearly doubled ○ Heroin ■ Use doubled to tripled History of DSM Classification ● DSM I = alcohol and drug dependence classified as a subset of sociopathic personality disturbance ○ 1952 ○ The idea of an addictive personality was a popular one in research and clinical practice ● DSM II = diagnosis remained the same ○ 1968 ● DSM III and beyond ○ Substance use disorders became a separate diagnostic category ■ Demoralization of these disorders ■ 1980 ○ Separate criteria for abuse and dependence ■ Very little impact on the treatment of these different diagnostic groups Substance-Related Disorders ● Use vs intoxication ● Abuse vs dependence ● Tolerance vs withdrawal ● Five main categories of substances ○ Depressants = result in behavioral sedation ■ Alcohol ■ Sedative ○ Stimulants = increase alertness and elevate mood ■ Cocaine ■ Nicotine ■ Caffeine ○ Opiates = primarily produce analgesia and euphoria ■ Heroin ■ Morphine ■ Codeine ○ Hallucinogens = alter sensory perception ■ marijuana ■ LSD ○ Other drugs ■ Inhalants ■ Steroids ■ Medications Short-term Actions of Alcohol ● Acts within brain to… ○ Stimulate GABA receptors ■ Reduce tension ○ Increases serotonin levels ■ pleasurable ■ Cravings ○ Inhibits glutamate receptors ■ Cognitive actions ● Tolerance and withdrawal reactions… ○ Anxiety ○ Depression ○ Weakness ○ Inability to sleep ○ Delirium Tremens (DTs) = severe alcohol withdrawal reaction that includes hallucinations ○ Alcohol tolerance is common in alcohol dependence (alcoholism) Long-term Actions of Alcohol ● Alcoholics reduce their food intake when consuming alcohol ○ Alcohol has no nutritional value ○ Impairs food digestion ○ Vitamin deficiency (B-complex) ■ Can lead to brain damage and amnesia ○ associated brain conditions ■ Korsakoff’s syndrome ■ Wernicke’s disease ○ Fetal alcohol syndrome Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Anxiolytics ● The nature of drugs in this class ○ Sedatives = calming ○ Hypnotic = sleep inducing ○ Anxiolytic = anxiety reducing ● Effects of these drugs are similar to large doses of alcohol ● All exert their influence via the GABA neurotransmitter system Stimulants ● Widely consumed ● Increase alertness and energy ● Cocaine ● Nicotine ● Caffeine ● Amphetamines ○ Produce vigor, reduce fatigue ○ Enhance the release of dopamine and norepinephrine, while blocking reuptake ● Ecstasy and Ice ○ Produce effects similar to speed, but without the crash ● Effects of cocaine ○ Produce short lived sensations of vigor, reduce fatigue ○ Effects result from blocking the reuptake of dopamine ● Effects of nicotine ○ Stimulates the central nervous system ○ Results in sensations of relaxation, wellness, and pleasure ● Effects of caffeine ○ Blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter adenosine ○ Small doses elevate mood and reduce fatigue ○ Regular use can result in tolerance and dependence Alcohol and Nicotine ● Initial use of both is highly influenced by peers ● Continued use of both is more strongly related to a strong shared genetic influence ● Possible mechanisms for this comorbidity ○ Abusers may have high reactivity to stress which is self-medicated by both substances ○ Smoking may reduce sensitivity to the effects of alcohol, necessitating more drinking for same effect Opioids ● Induce relaxation ● Provide relief from pain ● Opiate = natural chemical in the opium poppy with narcotic effects ● Opioids = refers to a class of natural and synthetic substances with narcotic effects ○ Often referred to as analgesics ■ Heroin ■ Opium ■ Codeine ■ Morphine ● Effects of Opioids ○ Activate body’s enkephalins and endorphins ○ Withdrawal symptoms can be lasting and severe Hallucinogens ● Change the way the user perceives the world ● May produce delusions, paranoia, hallucinations, and altered sensory perception ● Marijuana, LSD, mescaline, ecstasy, and phencyclidine ● Marijuana ○ Dried and crushed leaves of the help plant ○ Results in ■ Relaxation ■ Shifts in attention ■ Impaired memory ○ Active chemical is THC ○ Major signs of withdrawal and dependence do not typically occur ○ Interferes with cognitive function including loss of short-term memory (hippocampus) ○ Pain reduction ● LSD ○ Subjective time is slowed ○ Rapid shifts in mood ○ Effects depend on set and setting ○ Psychotic delusional and hallucinatory symptoms can be problematic ● PCP ○ Cheap, easily available, and often mixed with other substances ○ Behavioral toxicity ● Designer drugs ○ Ecstasy ○ Heighten auditory and visual perception ○ Sense of taste/touch Anabolic Steroids ● Derived or synthesized from testosterone ● Used medicinally or to increase body mass ● Users may engage in cycling or stacking ● Do not produce a high ● Can result in long-term mood disturbances and physical problems Developmental Transitions ● Factors that account for the adolescent transition into alcohol and drug use ● Stress ● Lack of coping skills ● Parental and peer use ● Lack of parental support ● Failure in school ● Acting out behaviors ● Alcohol norms ● Perceived risks of use ● Parental and peer modeling ● Media ● Drug use rarely starts in college Binge Drinking in College ● Increased in the last 10 years ● Drink with lower frequency and in greater quantity ● Most college students mature out of heavy drinking after college ● Developmental transitions ○ Marriage ○ Employment ○ Other adult responsibilities Dispositional Disease Model ● Alcoholism is a unitary disease ○ You have it or you don’t ● Alcoholism is genetic/biological in nature ● Loss of control is the cardinal characteristic ● Alcoholism is irreversible ● Implications of the disease model ○ Moderation is not possible if loss of control is truly a central feature ○ Substance use for the addict is progressive such that abuse will lead to dependence without intervention ○ Confrontation is appropriate because the disease renders them unable to act in their own best interests ● Dependence is relatively chronic ● A significant number of individuals with substance use disorders spontaneously recover ● Abuse rarely progresses to dependence over a 5 year period ● Confrontational approaches have been unsuccessful ● Alternatives… ○ Public health model ■ Agent, host, and environment ■ Not just a clinical problem but a societal problem ○ Free will model ■ Substance use disorders are under the control of the individual ■ Efficacy and motivation for self-change are all that is necessary Family and Genetic Influences ● Genetic differences in alcohol metabolism ● Multiple genes are involved in substance abuse ● Alcoholism as a form of depression ● No differences in heritability of genetic risk for men and women Parental Alcohol Disorder ● Deviance proneness model ○ These children have difficult temperaments and are exposed to poor parenting ■ Low emotional support ■ Low monitoring ○ This leads to distress and failure in school ○ This leads to affiliation with a deviant peer group that encourages alcohol use ● Negative affectivity model ○ These children are temperamentally reactive to stress and experience high levels of stress in their environment ○ Leads to high levels of negative affect ○ Leads to drinking to alleviate negative affect ● Alcohol sensitivity model ○ Children respond psychologically to alcohol in one of two different ways that make it more likely that they will drink excessively ■ They lack sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects ■ They have a heightened sensitivity to alcohol’s anxiety reducing effects Alcohol and Prevention ● Good family organization ● Daily routines and celebration of holidays ● Feeling close to and loved by at least one parent ● Being treated fairly at school ● Good cognitive coping skills Neurobiological influences ● Drugs affect the pleasure or reward centers in the brain ● The pleasure center…. ○ Dopamine ○ Midbrain ○ Frontal cortex ○ GABA turns off reward-pleasure system ○ Neurotransmitters responsible for anxiety/negative affect may be inhibited Alcohol and Craving ● Many individuals dependent upon alcohol describe feeling a subjective sense of craving (urge to drink) ● Craving is central to understanding loss of control over drinking and relapse ● Appetitive classical conditioning model of craving ○ Neutral stimuli (CS) in the environment (beer, bottle, bar) are repeatedly paired with alcohol UCS and its pleasant associated effects (UCR) ○ Exposure to these stimuli (CS) without consuming alcohol results in craving to experience alcohol’s positive effects (CR) ● Classical conditioning model of craving involving compensatory response/tolerance ○ Neural stimuli (CS… living room, certain emotions) are repeatedly paired with alcohol (UCS) ○ Alcohol consumption leads to physiological changes to counteract the effect of the drug (UCR) ○ Exposure to CS without consuming alcohol results in craving to avoid the physiological changes resulting from the conditioned compensatory response (CR) ● Classical conditioning model of craving involving withdrawal ○ Neutral stimuli (CS… hospital) are paired with abstinence from alcohol (UCS) and its unpleasant associated effects (UCR… sweating) ○ Exposure to the CS results in craving to avoid the unpleasant symptoms of withdrawal that are elicited (CR) Beliefs about Alcohol ● People develop beliefs about alcohol’s effects through ○ Direct experience ○ Media and culture ○ Parents and peers ● These beliefs affect drinking behavior Motivation to Drink ● Mood Enhancement Model = people high in sensation-seeking who believe that alcohol enhances mood will be motivated to drink ● External motivators = enhanced status in certain social groups ○ Avoidance of rejection due to not drinking in certain contexts ● Stress Reduction Model ○ Negative emotions coupled with a belief that alcohol reduces distress and an avoidant coping style for dealing with problems increase motivation to drink to cope with dress Social and Cultural Dimensions ● Exposure to drugs is a prerequisite for use of drugs ○ Media ○ Family ○ Peers ● Societal views about drug abuse ○ Sign of moral weakness = drug abuse is a failure of self-control ○ Sign of a disease = drug abuse is caused by some underlying process ● The role of cultural factors ○ Environment supports and even promotes the use of substances as an escape ○ Poverty An Integrative Model ● Exposure or access to a drug is necessary, but not sufficient ● Drug use depends on social and cultural expectations ● Drugs are used because of their pleasurable effects ● Drugs are abused for reasons that are more complex ○ The premise of equifinality ○ Stress may interact with sociological, genetic, social, and learning factors Biological Treatments ● Agonist substitution ○ Safe drug with similar chemical composition ■ Methadone for heroin ■ Nicotine gum or patch ● Antagonistic treatment ○ Drugs that block or counteract the positive effects of substances ■ Naltrexone for opiate and alcohol problems ● Aversive treatment ○ Drugs that make the injection of abused substances extremely unpleasant ■ Antabuse for alcoholism ■ Silver nitrate for nicotine addiction ● Efficacy of biological treatment ○ Generally not effective when used alone Psychosocial Treatments ● Detoxification ○ Getting alcohol out of the person’s system and seeing him or her through the withdrawal symptoms ○ Inpatient vs. outpatient care ● Community support programs ○ Seem helpful and are strongly encouraged ● Debate over controlled use vs complete abstinence as treatment goals Psychosocial Treatments ● Components of comprehensive treatment and prevention programs ○ Individual and group therapy ○ Aversion therapy and covert sensitization ○ Contingency management ○ Community reinforcement ○ Relapse prevention ○ Preventative efforts via education

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Chapter 7, Problem 7.1.1 is Solved
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Textbook: College Algebra
Edition: 9
Author: Ron Larson
ISBN: 9781133963028

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Solved: A rectangular array of real numbers that can be