In Exercises 1 10, approximate each number using a calculator. Round your answer to three decimal places.
Adolescent Psychology SECOND EXAM— April 6, 2016 CHP 5 • Freud on gender development: • “Anatomy is destiny” • “Genitals inﬂuence gender behavior” • “Gender and sexual behavior are unlearned and instinctual” • Social Role Theory: gender difference results from the contrasting roles of males and females (Alice Eagly) • Gender type on independence: • Social cognitive theory: children’s and adolescents gender development is inﬂuenced by peers, schools, mass media, siblings, etc. • Research on same sex education: Media inﬂuence on adolescence body image: portrayed in movies, videos, and lyrics of • popular music. access to explicit websites, and the interest being a resource to attain more info on sexuality • Gender Schema Theory: what’s gender appropriate/inappropriate in their culture (leading into the emergence of gender typing) • Differences between male/female adolescents in verbal/math skills: no gender differences in overall intelligence, but in some cognitive areas. • Visuospatial: • Verbal: Math: • • Prosocial behavior: unselﬁsh interest in helping others. (females are more prosocial and empathetic) • although adolescents described ss egocentric and selﬁsh, their altruism is plentiful • Types of prosocial behavior: • Forgiveness • Gratitude • Moral Feeling • Ego • Conscience Empathy • CHP 6 • Sexual Identity: • involves indication of sexual orientation • emerges in context of physical, social and cultural factors • Differences between adolescent males/females: • Research: limited, and not straightforward. • due to reluctance, or giving socially desirable answers that may not be true • Sexual scripts: stereotyped pattern/role for how one should behave sexually • causes problems and confusion for adolescents as they work our their sexual identities • by adolescence, you know which scripts to follow • Sexual outlet for adolescents: self-stimulation (masturbation) CHP 7 • Kohlberg/Morality: LEVELS & STAGES • Level1— Preconventional Reasoning: • Stage1— punishment and obedience orientation • Stage2— Individualism, instrumental purpose and exchange • Level2— Conventional Reasoning (abiding by their own internal standards, and external standards (others, ex. parents or laws of society) • Stage3— Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships and interpersonal conformity Stage4— Social systems morality • Level3— Postconventional Reasoning (highest level of moral development where morality is more • internal— individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options and then decided on a personal moral code) • Stage5— social contract/utility and individual rights • Stage6— Universal ethical principles • Reinforcement, punishment and modeling: • explains why adolescents learn certain moral behavior, and why they differ • alert to adult hypocrisy, and the double standard • Freud on moral standards: Superego: the moral branch of personality, which develops in early childhood when Oedipus • conﬂict is resolved • Sympathy: feeling pity and sorrow for someone • Empathy: understanding/common feeling • positive feelings, contributes positively to moral development • Religious afﬁliation: • adolescent girls are more religious than boys • emerging adults in less developed countries are more developed • study shows: religiousness declined from 14-20yrs in the US religion is linked to positive outcomes for adolescents • • Parenting disciplining techniques: • Love Withdrawal: parents withholds attention or love from the adolescent. ex. when the parent refuses to talk to the adolescent or states a dislike for the adolescent (extremely damaging) • PowerAssertion: attempts to gain control over the adolescent or their resources • Induction: a parent uses reason and explanation of consequences for others of the adolescents actions (more positively contributing to moral development0 **Based on culture, socioeconomic status, and child’s age— certain disciplining techniques may work better than the other. Not necessarily that love withdrawal is the worst, or induction being the best. CHP 8 • Parent-adolescent relationship viewed aa: conﬂict due to changes on both sides, whether physical, cognitive or socioemotional • Parents as managers: to help adolescents reach their full potentional, help structure choices and provide guidance but do NOT make choices for them • the more effective a parent is as a manager, the better the adolescents grades/self responsibility • Parent-adolescent conﬂict: • “generation gap” is a stereotype early adolescence is when parent-adolescent conﬂict escalates beyond parent-child conﬂict • • Secure attachment in infancy is central to the development of social competence— positive peer relationship, and develop a greater ability to regulate their emotions • Insecure attachment: the infant either avoids the caregiver or shows great resistance • Birth order: • whether an adolescent has older/younger sibling has been linked to development o certain personality characteristics • research has found that the ﬁrst born is more intelligent, responsible and goal driven, the youngest would be more rebellious • Marital satisfaction: related to /based on career reevaluation, health/body, etc. (increases with one having developed secure attachment. Parenting has a direct impact on the child’s behavior and development, while the parents marital relationship indirectly impacts the child