In Exercises 11 18, graph each function by making a table of coordinates. If applicable, use a graphing utility to confirm your hand-drawn graph.
600’s AD Islam + Empires A. Muhammad a. In Arabia, in Mecca around 570 AD Muhammad was born. b. At the age of roughly 25 he married wealthy widow and was able to retire c. He liked to go out into the desert and meditate. d. Around the time when he was 40 he was out in the desert and according to him he had a very important religious experience. He was visited by the angel Gabriel. e. The angel told him he was chosen by god to reveal a new important religion to the world. f. Muhammed would go back to the desert where more of this religion would be revealed to him then he would go back to Mecca and tell the people what he had learned. g. His success in gaining followers got him in trouble with family that ruled Mecca. h. People would come to Mecca to see the great black meteor. Since it had fallen from the sky they believed it had magical powers i. In 622 the family that ruled Mecca drove Muhammed and his followers out. They fled from Mecca to Yathrib. j. This trip is called the Hejira, which means the flight. Important because it marks the official beginning. k. Muhammed becomes the religious, political, and military leader of Yathrib. He even renamed the city Medina, meaning the city of thee prophet. l. Everyone in Islam, or almost everyone adopted the new religion. m. After Muhammad’s death they conquered a large empire. n. They captured the new Persian Empire and extensive territory from the Byzantines. o. The expansion of Islam continued during the Umayyad dynasty B. Umayyad a. They seized power in 661 and installed a hereditary monarchy. They would rule from 661-750 b. During this period Muslim armies continued to expand, specifically towards Europe. c. First they attempted to conquer Europe from the East, which meant they had to go through the Byzantine Empire, specifically Constantinople. C. Constantinople a. In 1717 they sent a huge army and navy to capture the Byzantine capital. b. They attacked the capital for exactly one year. In the end the Muslims failed to capture Constantinople of the Byzantine Empire. c. First major setback they faced. They failed for a number reasons i. Byzantines knew an attack was coming so they stockpiled stuff. ii. The Byzantines had a huge underground water system, so they could withstand a siege. iii. The city of Constantinople had huge walls and a moat and the Muslims could not breach the walls. d. The Byzantines had a secret weapon. They had developed primitive flamethrowers, which would shoot liquid and make things catch on fire D. Charles Martel a. The Muslims then tried to conquer Europe from the West. b. In 732 they invaded the kingdom of the franks. The leader was Charles Martel. c. He had a nickname and it was Charles the hammer. d. The Franks were one of the tribes, which had destroyed the Western Roman Empire. e. The Franks were by the far best of the tribes E. Tours a. The battle of Tours was fought and the army of franks defeated the Muslim army b. As a result of these defeats an equilibrium between two religions was reached. F. Abu al-Abbas a. The Umayyads were destroyed by Abu al-Abbas. b. He was known as the blood thirsty and established the Abbasids dynasty. G. Hsuan Tsung a. Most famous tang Chinese emperor b. During the early part of his reign he captured a huge empire c. The Chinese went so far west they ended up in the Middle East, this is the furthest west any Chinese army would ever go. H. Talas a. In 751 a very important battle is fought, the Battle of the Talas River i. Things do not go well for the Chinese, because Tsung became less effective as a ruler the more time he spent ruing ii. He fell in love with Yang Guifei, and is so in love he basically lets her run the empire and this was a problem because she did not know what she was doing and appointed her friends to government jobs who also did not know what they were doing. iii. The Muslims win the battle of the Talas River. As a result the Chinese retreat to the East and Muslims take over central Asia. iv. Marks the beginning of the decline of the Tang dynasty. v. Tsung was forced to execute Yang to keep his throne. I. Charlemagne a. Grandson of Charles Martel b. Became King of the Franks in the year 768, he then proceeded to conquer the largest empire seen in Western Europe since the fall of Rome. c. He decides that he wants a new title since he conquered a large Empire. d. King of the Franks is no longer good enough, he wants to be Roman emperor. The problem was there was already a Roman Emperor, but then events in Constantinople opened the doors for Charlemagne J. Constantine VI a. In 780, a new emperor took the throne his name was Constantine VI, the only problem was that at the time he was only 6 so his mother ruled on his behalf, her name was Irene. b. Irene was a very intelligent, very forceful woman, so while she was in charge things ran well. c. However, Irene realizes that she enjoys ruling and does not want to give up power. She refuses to step down and let him rule d. Constantine goes into his twenties and Irene is still ruling. e. Finally Constantine is 27 years old and is able to get his mother to step down and he is able to become ruler. f. Even though she stepped down she had not wanted to give up absolute power so she started to plot against her own son. g. This plotting was made easier since she had appointed most of the people in power, so they were loyal to her and not Constantine. h. Later in that year Irene rebels against her own son and seizes control of the capital, Constantine makes a break for it and is trying to get to the frontiers thinking that the armies would help him. i. He never made it to the frontier he was captured and dragged back to Constantinople, he is brought back to the palace and in the same room where she had given birth to him, and Irene had her son blinded. He dies a few days later j. She becomes the first woman of the Byzantine Empire to rule on her own k. On Christmas day 800 AD, Charlemagne is proclaimed emperor by the pope. The century of the Seljuk Turks A. Tang Dynasty a. Eventually declined and fell and plunged China into a long period of division and civil war. B. Basil II a. He ruled from 976-1025 b. During his reign the Byzantine empire was the most powerful it had been in a very long time c. Largely thanks to the new military system that had been implemented, the theme system d. During his reign they were able to expand by taking advantage of their weak neighbors. e. After Basil dies, the Byzantine government changes the themes system. f. Great landowners convinced the government that it would be better if the land being taken up by the small landowners could be bought by others and it would be better. g. Soon enough small landowners are driven out of business and military power declined quickly. h. The power of the military declined right at the time when they faced a new threat from the East, the Seljuk Turks C. Themes a. As a part of this system the byzantine people would be given a small farm. The catch was that once they were given the piece of land they were required to do military system. b. This system worked well because increased the number of people in the military and it also filled the military with patriotic men because the men who fought believed they had a part in the empire. D. Turk ÷ a. Seljuk Turks i. Typical pastoralist tribe ii. The Turks had always caused the Chinese a lot of trouble. iii. Finally the Chinese deliver a devastating blow and it causes the Turks to divide. iv. The Seljuk Turks move west, they move so far west that they eventually end up in the Middle East. v. They were very warlike and great fighters so the Abbasids decide to hire them as soldiers to fight in the army. vi. They become soldiers and during the next few decades they adopt Islam, vii. They continued to serve in the Abbasid army until they realized that most of the soldiers were Turks and therefore they had the power and they seize control of Bagdad and take control of the Abbasid Empire. viii. This put them right next door of the Byzantine Empire E. Toghrul Beg a. Leader if the Seljuk Turks b. During his reign they enter the Abbasid empire in 1025 c. He proclaims sultan after defeating the Abbasids F. Abbasid a. The problem was that this empire was simply too big and it was difficult to maintain an empire b. Even though it was Muslim. Most of the people were from different ethnic groups meaning different cultures and languages. c. These people were not happy being ruled by Abbasids and they want their freedom d. Parts of the Abbasid Empire begin to break away and smaller Muslim states are created. G. Charlemagne’s Empire a. After the death of Charlemagne it eventually fell apart i. The Franks did not practice primogeniture, when a king dies the eldest son automatically becomes king ii. Instead, the kingdom is divided equally between his sons iii. A number of different tribes attacked and destroyed what remained of his empire. The worst of these tribes were the Vikings. H. Byzantine Empire a. Most empires follow a common trajectory but not this empire. This empire was like a rollercoaster it had many ups and downs. b. During this time when the Byzantine empire is flourishing and the zenith was during the reign of Basil II I. Alp Arslan a. He succeeds Toghrul Beg and becomes the new sultan b. Decides to invade the Byzantine Empire J. Manzikert a. In 1071 one of the most important battles is fought, the battle of Manzikert b. The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine army. c. As a result, the Seljuk Turks occupy most of what is now Turkey d. Defeat in this battle marks the beginning of the long decline of the Byzantine Empire. It marks the beginning of the end. e. This battle leads directly to the crusades, which are some of the most important events in history. f. The crusades were military campaigns by western military Christians to drive the Seljuk Turks out of the holy lands. K. Alexius I a. He was Byzantine emperor from 1081-1118 b. Wants to reconquer all the lands the Seljuk Turks had taken c. He knew the Byzantine Empire was too weak to attack the Seljuk Turks on their own and decided that they would need military aid. d. He decides to ask his fellow Christians in Western Europe for help. e. He asked the pope to recruit soldiers in Western Europe and send them East t help the Byzantines f. He sends a letter to the pope whose name was Urban II L. Urban II a. The pope, religious leader of the Western Christians. b. He received a letter from Alexius II c. In this letter he sees an incredible opportunity, so he makes a big announcement. d. He calls for a meeting in Cleremont in France and tells everyone that he is going to announce something that is really big e. Since he is the pope a lot of people show up in Cleremont M. Cleremont a. At Cleremont, the pope calls for a great crusade, a military campaign to help the Byzantines and free the holy lands from Muslim rule. b. Everybody in the audience is so fired and they yell out GOD WILLS IT. c. This marks the beginning of the crusades d. They were incredibly successful in the sense that there were many and thousands of people signed up e. They were popular for three reasons i. Piety 1. Everyone in Europe was very religious and they truly believed in god and believed that heaven and hell were real. 2. The pope tells them that if they go on the crusade and are killed they will go straight to heaven ii. Pugnaciousness 1. The love of fighting, this was the era of the European Knight 2. They spent all of their time either training or fighting iii. Greed 1. The pope promised that any lands that they conquered would be theirs. N. 1 Crusade a. Lasted from 1096-1099 b. Only crusade that was a success in the sense that they actually got a hold of land c. The crusader states were conquered d. We know so much about what happened because many of the soldiers that went wrote accounts of what happened e. They wrote what happened what happened when they captured Jerusalem f. Eventually the Muslims recaptured the holy lands, so they had to go on more crusades