In Exercises 1 6, the graph of a polar equation is given. Select the polar equation for each graph from the following options.
Chapter 13: Examples of Bad Bacteria Salmonella Most common cause of US food-borne illness Common sources: Poultry and eggs are the foods most commonly contaminated; Prevention: killed by heat; thoroughly cook foods likely to be contaminated E coli Causes: some strains are harmless; others can cause serious food-borne infection E. coli O157:H7 produces a toxin causing abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, fatal kidney failure Common sources: fecal contamination of water or food (for example, meats and produce) Listeria Monocytogenes Causes: flulike symptoms; more serious in high-risk groups (pregnant women, children, elderly people, with compromised immunity) During pregnancy: causes spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, fetal meningitis and blood infections Common sources: everywhere in environment Prevention: survives and grows at refrigerator temperatures so infects ready-to-eat foods; heat hot dogs and lunchmeats to steaming point and avoid unpasteurized dairy products NOTE: listeria fatality rate is 21% Infant botulism Most common form of botulism in the US Caused by ingestion of botulism spores (most common is honey) Spores germinate in the infant’s gastrointestinal tract, producing toxin In adults, competing intestinal microflora prevent spores from germinating Some toxin is absorbed into the bloodstream, causing weakness, paralysis, and respiratory problems; infants generally recover Never feed honey to children less than 1 year Federal Agencies Set standards and establish regulations for: safe handling of food and water information included on food labels Regulate use of additives, packaging materials, and agricultural chemicals Inspect food processing and storage facilities Monitor domestic and imported foods Investigate outbreaks of food-borne illness Prevent microbial food-borne illnesses Choose food carefully; when in doubt, throw out Prepare food in a clean kitchen to reduce cross-contamination (transfer to another food) NOTE: cross-contamination happens most commonly in home kitchens Store food in refrigerator or freezer Foods served cold should be kept cold until served Thaw frozen foods in refrigerator or microwave (not at room temperature) Heat foods to recommended temperatures Cooked foods should be kept hot until served Food poisoning Food-borne illness: illness caused by food Usually causes gastrointestinal symptoms Abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting Can cause kidney failure, arthritis, paralysis, miscarriage, death Usually caused by microbes (microorganisms), such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites Microbes that can cause disease are pathogens (they generate pathology) Organic Foods Produced, processed, and handled according to USDA National Organic Program standards Reduced chemical pesticides and fertilizer use USDA determines substances that can or cannot be used USDA must certify before labeled “Organic” Most conventional pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, genetically modified ingredients, irradiation, antibiotics, and growth hormones are prohibited Recycling of resources Conservation of soil and water Minimize food contaminants Choose a wide variety of foods Choose organic or locally-grown produce Wash and in some cases peel produce Trim fat from meat and remove poultry skin Choose wisely and consume a variety of fish Remove fish skin, fatty material, and dark meat Broil, poach, boil, and bake fish Genetically modified (GM) crops Gene (piece of DNA) for desired characteristic (for example disease resistance) is transferred from plant, animal, or bacterial cells into plant cells Creates recombinant DNA - a combination of DNA from two organisms Modified cells divide and differentiate into plant New plant is a transgenic organism Each cell in plant contains transferred gene Most common: soybeans, corn, rapeseed (canola) Biotechnology Concerns Nutrient content may be negatively affected Allergen or toxin may be introduced GM crops will be used to the exclusion of other varieties, reducing biodiversity which may reduce ability to adapt to new conditions, diseases, or other hazards GM crops may create “superweeds” GM crops producing pesticides may promote evolution of pesticide-resistant insects Labeling of GM Foods Not required to have special labeling unless: nutritional composition has been altered it contains potentially harmful allergens, toxins, pesticides, or herbicides, or new ingredients it has been changed significantly enough so that its traditional name no longer applies Premarket approval required if new food contains substance not commonly found in foods or without a history of safe use in foods Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Food safety system required for food manufacturers, processors, and distributors Analyzes food production, processing, and transport Goal: identify potential sources of contamination and points where measures can be taken to prevent contamination Monitors these critical control points High & Low Temp Preservation Provide appealing, safe foods Cooking: kills microbes, destroys most toxins Pasteurization: process of heating food products to kill microbes Sterilization and aseptic processing: placement of sterilized food in sterilized package using sterile process Refrigeration or freezing does not kill microbes but slows or stops microbial growth Food Irradiation (cold pasteurization) Used in more than 40 countries and used infrequently in the US because of public suspicion and of lack of irradiation facilities Exposes food to high doses of X-rays, gamma radiation, or high-energy electrons to kill microbes and insects and inactivate enzymes that cause germination and ripening of fruits and vegetables Food additive: produces compounds not present in the original foods (regulated) Cross-Contamination the process by which bacteria or other microorganisms are unintentionally transferred from one substance or object to another, with harmful effect. Chapter 14: Poor-quality diets Malnutrition can occur even if enough food is consumed Typical diet in developing countries: high-fiber grains and root vegetables with little variety Deficiencies in protein, iron, iodine, vitamin A, niacin, thiamin, vitamin C, folate, zinc, selenium, calcium At most risk: ill, pregnant, young, and old Nutrition Transition Diets in developing countries and rural areas: Limited foods Starchy grains Root vegetables Diets in developed countries and urban areas: Increased variety Increased meats Increased low-nutrient-density foods Decreased activity Nutrition safety net Federal programs that provide access to affordable food and promote healthy eating Combination of general nutrition assistance with specialized programs targeted to groups with particular nutritional risks One in every 4 Americans receive some kind of food assistance Nutrition Assistance Programs Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): monthly coupons or debit cards for food purchases (formerly Food Stamps) Four other programs targeting high-risk groups National School Lunch Program Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Child and Adult Care Food Program National School Breakfast Program Nutrition Assistance Programs: WIC The WIC food packages provide supplemental foods designed to meet the special nutritional needs of low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding postpartum women, infants and children up to five years of age who are at nutritional risk. Provides nutrition education Eligibility based on income and presence of nutritional risk Causes of Food Shortages Poverty: unable to afford food/medical care; no access to food (EX: no car & grocery store too far away to walk); having to choose between food & other needs Overpopulation: not enough food & resources for everyone Religious/Cultural Practices: may control who eats/how much everyone eats depending on their cultural value (EX: male, female, working); certain foods may be forbidden or only eaten for special times of the year Limited environmental resources: not enough for everyone NOTE: poverty is the main cause of hunger in the US Terms Subsistence farming – farming for the purpose of living off your own crop Cash crops farming – farming for the purpose of trading your crop Stunting - decrease in linear growth rate (low height for age) Food Desert - area that lacks access to affordable foods that make up a healthy diet: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk Food Insecurity - lack of adequate physical, social, or economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life Famine - widespread lack of food access resulting from a disaster Arable Land – land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops Gleaning – to gather leftover grain or other produce after a harvest