Measuring the speed of a bullet. A bullet of mass m is fi red horizontally into a wooden block of mass M lying on a table. The bullet remains in the block after the collision. The coeffi cient of friction between the block and table is m, and the block slides a distance d before stopping. Find the initial speed v0 of the bullet in terms of M, m, m, g, and d.
Chapter 12 Libel • 4 components: 1. Defamation: expose to hatred, contempt, or ridicule; lower esteem of peers; cause to be shunned; or injure business, trade or profession (injury of some kind) 2. Publication: seen by person other than writer and defamed 3. Id: must be able to identify the person 4. Negligence: Didn’t follow customary standards • Public Figure: added burden of false and reckless disregard for the truth, actual malice. Held to a higher standard. Defenses: 1. Truth 2. Privilege: public official doing public action 3. Fair comment and criticism Privacy: 4 major areas • Employee newsletters: keep organization orientation, not personal • Photo releases: Sign release, file, date, context • Product publicity and advertising: release, issue of misappropriation • Media inquiries about employees: Confirm employee, title/job, begin/end date, bio sheet, employee address media; no personal info o Also, email public; whistleblower/ trade secrets Copyright • 2 areas • Copyrighting your stuff • Using other's copy righted stuff Copyright • Copyright: exclusive rights of original work of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression now known or later developed • Work include: o Copyright symbol (c in circle) followed by copyright o Year of copyright o Name of copyright owner • Individual: Life +70 years • For hire: 95 years from publish. 45 years added for Mickey Mouse Fair use • Get permission • Copyright Clearance Center www.copyright.com • Issues of fair use 1. Purpose/character of use 2. Nature of copyright at work 3. Amount used 4. Effect on market value 7 categories of authorship • Literary works • Musical works • Dramatic works • Pantomimes and choreographic works • Pictoral, graphic or sculptural works • Motion pictures • Sound recordings Other Issues freelancers: Reid Case: own, buyer gain license Trademarks • Word, symbol, slogan, used singly or in combination, that identifies a product's origin • R in circle registered, TM in small caps not registered (common law), SM in circle service mark registered, SM not registered or pending • Register with patent office 1. Application 2. Drawing 3. Fee $175 4. 3 ex. How being used • First: 5 years, 10 year renewals • Misappropriation of personality: The king(Elvis), CKX $100 million; Ali $50 million FTC • Regulate advertising and publicity: issues of deception or misleading • Ex. Campbell's soup: heart healthy • Hollywood movie critic quotes • Kid Food marketing • See p. 317 summary SEC: Top 3 • Full information must be given on anything that might materially affect the company's stock • Timely disclosure is essential • Insider trading is illegal • Mosaic Doctrine: "Overall misleading impression" SEC • Fair disclosure: REG FD (2000): broadly disseminate material information; not just to brokers and analysts Corporate/ Employee Free Speech • Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commissions: corporations can spend freely for or against a candidate Chapter 13 The Internet: Pervasive in Lives • Digital: 0,1 • Internet hardware; WWW software • ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) early 1960 • APRANET: 1969; move to civiilian use • 1979: like ARPANET but support discussion groups • 1979 Compuserve; 1989 AOL • 1989 Tim Berners-‐Lee: invent WWW software system; give it away • Internet Access: US 90%; 35 worldwide WWW cont • Making a website interactive o Pull, not push model o WSJ: 3 of 24 respond adequately • Managing a website o Requires cross-‐functional teams o Brings in expertise from several departments • 3 advantages o Cost-‐effectiveness o 24/7 access by users o Portability o 3 main types • Organizational Blogs: Company/PR write • Employee Blogs: Employee blog on behalf of co.: id self in co.; personal views • Third-‐Party Blogs: Ex. Food bloggers and Weber Shandwick • Wikis: Saving Trees o Invite all users to edit any page within the site using a basic browser o Promote meaningful topic association among different pages o Involve visitors in ongoing process of creation and collaboration o Ex. GM Centennial Celebration Managing the Website • Ideally lie with Corp Comm • PR People: 70% believe control should be in PR • Reality: IT, Marketing, HR • Team approach needed Webcasts • Any event, live or archived, which involves the transmission of information from a person or organization to a larger audience over the Internet • 90% of public companies use • Ex. Chocolate Manufacturers Assn. (CMA): Chocolate samples • Ex. US Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP): $20 bill Podcasts • A podcast is a digital media file, or a series of such files, that are distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds (RSS) for playback on portable media players and personal computers • Primarily audio, moving to video podcasts • Ex. Whirlpool “American Family” family issues, travel, health; Purina Pet Advice Facebook: King in Social Media • Over 1.5 billion users o 70% are outside of the U.S. • 150 million daily US visitors • Why PR should make use of Facebook o Gaining consumer insights o Building brand awareness o Creating customer loyalty Snapshot of Facebook: 2013 • Average visit: 20 minutes Twitter • Form of texting messaging 140 characters, followers • Web based so posts are indexed by Google and available to anyone with Internet access • Getting more robust: Annotations: Possible platform to share anything on Twitter • 85% of world’s largest companies have active accounts • Use examples: p. 348 • Basic guidelines for PR professionals o Think outside the box o Tell as story o Avoid bulletin board syndrome o Don’t be a “twammer” o Update on a daily basis o Use Twitter in a crisis o Think twice before posting Texting: A Way of Life • 75% of mobile phone users text daily • Organizations: 3 Types o Broadcast text: brief message, memo o Subscription: User sign up; like RSS on computer o One-‐Off: Send text to source to get answer o Good ex. of texting: SD Office of Tourism Ski report Chapter 14 PR and News • PR accounts for 50% of news • 70% of adults follow local news • Uncontrolled, Editor • Reporters process info • Reporters rely on PR • News release: Disseminate info to mass media and other outlets Characteristics of News • Impact/consequence • Oddity/unusual • Conflict • Known principal/prominence • Proximity • Timely News Values • Accuracy • Objective • Fairness/Balance The Basic Online News Release • Single Space • 200 words or less, 5 paragraphs • Inverted pyramid: Important first, 5W, H • Again, active tense • Top Line: name of organization, logo • Second Line: Date • Headline in bold face; ID what about; Subject line in e-‐mail (20 words or $30.75 with tax and tip at 23%. Can add up to 25%. • Logistics and Timing • Timeline for process • Timeline of event day(s) • Timeline of event itself Receptions and cocktails • 2 hours max, large room, standing, light food • Key is social interaction • Focus on event, if speech 5-‐10 minutes • Bar: hosted, no host, tickets, skilled bartender 1 per 75; also have nonalcoholic beverages • Cut off: Bar closes in10 minutes Trade Shows • 6,000 a year in US; 65 million attend annually • Several 1000 to >100,000 • Ex. CES 150,000 in Vegas, 3000 companies, 3 million sq. ft. • Exhibit booths: Start at $50,000 and up ($500K-‐$1 million) • 10 seconds to attract attention • Hospitality Suites o Pressroom and Media Relations: Starts pre-‐show, arrange ahead, serve needs at site