Young's modulus of elasticity, E, relates the strain, 8LIL, in a solid to the applied stress, FIA, through the relationship FIA = E(8L/L). To determine E, a tensile machine is used, and F, L, 8L, and A are measured. The uncertainties in each of these quantities are 0.5%, 1 %,5%, and 1.5%, respectively, with 95% confidence. Calculate the uncertainty in E in percentage form. Which of these measurements has
>Sleep Circadian rhythm Follows consists cyclical patterns (24 hours) that reflects internal biological clock (thought to rely heavily on sunlight exposed but regulated by hypothalamus) R.E.M. sleep vs. nonR.E.M. sleep 1. Stage one Have 37cps/theta waves. If you wake them in this state they will likely not know or be aware they had been sleeping. They have Hypnagogic images, experience of vivid events just moments after entering sleep( not considered dreams but may influence them) Hypnic jerk relaxation of muscles as you are falling asleep can produce jerking movement as you drift. 2. Stage 2 have 1214cps/ mostly theta waves. Body temp go down as does heart rate. Breathing is shallow and irregular Sleep spindles activity bursts last only seconds but happen frequently If woke up they will be aware they slept 3. Stage 3 and 4 have ½ 2 cps delta waves Body at low level of functions people may be difficult to wake up. Growth hormones are released in pituitary gland during 4 stage Children spend more time here for growth 4. R.E.M replaces the first stage (successive cycle increase the amount of time in REM sleep, DREAM in this stage. Body temp up and heart rate up burst of synchromesh eye movement. Common sleep disorders Sleep apnea failure of upper respiratory system with sleeping that breathing to stop Somnambulism sleep walking Narcolepsy Compulsion to sleep during day, Irresistible sleep triggered by abrupt shifts in emotions state, goes immediately into REM. Loss of muscle control. Insomnia – Involves chronic inability to have consistent cyclical sleep patterns…. Failure to sleep, frequently waking, difficulties going to sleep) Sleep paralysis person can wake up same structure that paralysis body fails to wake up the paralysis (conscious but can’t move) >Knowledge Categorization concepts are put into categories By definition; based on necessary and sufficient features By similarity >the prototype approach (what is the standard) Prototypicality and the typicality effect > The exemplar approach (what sets them apart) Priming (the effect of) * has occurred when presentation of one stimulus facilitates (speeds up) observer response to some other stimulus that is presented shortly after. Rosch had Ps respond ‘same’ or ‘different’ for pairs of colored tiles after hearing an auditory prime. He compared reaction times for (same) across three stimulus combos. High prototypicality (same color, matches auditory prime), low prototypicality (same colors, matches auditory prime, but less average version of color), and mismatching colors. Increase in prototypicality will produce a decrease in reaction times. Spreading activation As it relates to cognitive psychology, spreading activation is how the brain moves through an entire network of ideas to retrieve specific information. The spreading activation theory presents the array of concepts within our memory as cognitive units, each consisting of a node and its associated elements or characteristics, all connected together by edges. When a word (the target) is preceded by an associated word (the prime) in word recognition tasks, participants seem to perform better in the amount of time that it takes them to respond. For instance, subjects respond faster to the word “doctor” when it is preceded by “nurse” than when it is preceded by an unrelated word like “carrot”. This semantic priming effect with words that are close in meaning within the cognitive network has been seen in a wide range of tasks given by experimenters, ranging from sentence verification to lexical decision and naming Excitatory activity spreads away from active nodes along any connected links Results in priming of nearby nodes. Hierarchical organization processes of organization involve hierarchical divisions beginning with larger (more general) categories towards smaller (more specific) categories Subordinate Larger, general, global like furniture, vehicle, food, etc. Basic people tend to use this level if it’s not too general nor too specific. (Car, table, chair). It is psychologically privileged. more consistency given among observer reports of feature for basic (nonexperts use basic) Quicker to id. Faster RT/ basic level item as a member of a category. Superordinate [levels of representation] (smaller, specific, local) like the Texas double whopper very specific (Experts tend to use subordinate terms for items related to their expertise Cognitive economy Shared properties stored at higher level nodes exception stored at lower level nodes Notion proposed to reflect what we know about memory if properties can be stored at higher levels than they can be stored fewer times ❖ SemanticCollins and Quillian modeled a hierarchical network to explain how categories and concepts are associated in the mind. Networks consists of Nodes(each representing a category or concept) that are connected by links Related nodes (that share similar features or similar) are connected Properties added with experience from general to specific hierarchical (get more on this later) ❖ Connectionist Reflects what we know about how info. Is represented to the brain (like neurons some activate from the envirornmenal stimuli and some come from other unit of networks) Does a good job explaining learning behavior. Connectionism is a set of approaches in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind that models mental or behavioral phenomena as the emergent processes of interconnected networks of simple units. The term was introduced by Donald Hebb in 1940s. There are many forms of connectionism, but the most common forms use neural network models. ❖ Neural networks In neuroscience, a biological neural network (sometimes called a neural pathway) is a series of interconnected neurons whose activation defines a recognizable linear pathway. The interface through which neurons interact with their neighbors usually consists of several axon terminals connected via synapses to dendrites on other neurons. If the sum of the input signals into one neuron surpasses a certain threshold, the neuron sends an action potential (AP) at the axon hillock and transmits this electrical signal along the axon. ❖ Back propagationLearning is slow but creates a network capable of handling a wide variety of inputs. Learning can be general. Consider concepts with similar patterns of activation can be capitalized off of previous learning experiment. Backpropagation, an abbreviation for "backward propagation of errors", is a common method of training artificial neural networks used in conjunction with an optimization method such as gradient descent. The method calculates the gradient of a loss function with respect to all the weights in the network. Parallel distributed processing or connectionism due to the way that activity is distributed across a network. The prevailing connectionist approach today was originally known as parallel distributed processing (PDP). It was an artificial neural network approach that stressed the parallel nature of neural processing, and the distributed nature of neural representations. It provided a general mathematical framework for researchers to operate in. Lexical decision task Myer and Schvaneveldt tested spreading activation using this. LDT: a procedure used in many psychology and psycholinguistics experiments. The basic procedure involves measuring how quickly people classify stimuli as words or nonwords. Decide whether or not an auditory stimulus is a word (in this particular experiment, P’s respond yes it both item in the pair are words, no if either or both were not a word) Some pairs of words were closely associated and some pairs were not related. Increase semantic relatedness, decrease RTs >Visual Imagery Basic concept of visual imagery reactivating neurons to construct images in our mind Spatial vs. propositional debate Spatial: info represented with regard to proximity. Emphasis on perceptual distance for locations of objects and events. Propositional: info represented by the linguistic and language based components used to describe it. Tacitknowledge explanation the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it. For example, that London is in the United Kingdom is a piece of explicit knowledge that can be written down, transmitted, and understood by a recipient. However, the ability to speak a language, knead dough, play a musical instrument, or design and use complex equipment requires all sorts of knowledge that is not always known explicitly, even by expert practitioners, and which is difficult or impossible to explicitly transfer to other users. Subjects use tacit knowledge to guide responding. Knowledge influences judgement. Subtraction method Brain activity can be used to inform us about imagery using the subtraction method. Gather activity levels when Participants are receiving some stimulus vs. when they are creating a visual image of that stimulus. Compare patterns by subtracting activity during imagery from perceptual activity. Know about the link between visual perception and mental imagery perception has a spatial quality, detail in image should reflect detail in perceptual processing, interpretations of images reflect interpretations in perception. Neurons fire in response to both perceiving and imaging a visual stimulus. Method of loci associating images with locations. Technique used for remembering a list of things, and to help remember them in a particular order. Ex. for a six item list, pick six locations from your body starting from your toes that you can generate a story for each to be remembered items. Pegword technique associating images with words. Technique used for remembering a list of things, and to help remember them in a particular order. Rhyme common words or generate vivid images. >Psycholinguistics Phonemes vs. morphemes vs. syllables vs. words 1. Phonemes speech sounds a. Smallest units of sound in spoken language b. These blend together when they are combined to form words 2. Morphemes basic units of meaning a. Like Pretested has three morphemes or cat is one morphemes but cats is two b. Not dependent on syllables c. If you change the meaning of the term then you +, or substitute a morpheme. 3. Words lexical units representations a. Made up of one or more morphemes b. Representation of items in lexicon form neighborhoods organized by semantics and phonological similarities B. F. Skinner Wrote Verbal behavior described children as imitators of speech Noted that correct speech is rewarded, Posits that language is learned via reinforcement. N. Chomsky know their major contributions says they are not just imitators that children produce utterances that they’ve never hear. Like go to goed or think to thinked. Children aren’t rewarded for the incorrect utterance and never heard anyone else get rewarded for them. That they learn to generalize using cognitive faculty. That language is infinite no limit to the # of possible sentences that one can produce and understand. The reason language is so powerful is because the Possibilities of language are infinite but experience is finite Can tell when a sentence is grammatical (Lang. Not determined purely by imitation or reinforcement but mental processes and cognitive structures. Critical developmental period * basically a period for a person acquires a first language. Know the relevance of the story of “Genie” that there is a cut off period for a person to learn. Chomsky’s claims on the acquisition(innateness) of grammar We have a universal grammar we possess the genetic hardware equipped to support a language facility as it develops. Born with the tools to develop any language providing we receive stable input. Which things were discussed that set humans apart from other species 1. We have recursion the ability to compile successively more complex strings into meaningful utterances 2. We can generate novel expressions that afford us the ability to abstract about the world (like blog, hashtag, selfie, roadkill, etc.) 3. We have a different range of vocal cords (finetuned) Ways of representing the physical speech signal A. Acoustic a. Frequency (pitch) b. Intensity (amplitude and loudness) B. Auditory a. Shape of word form C. Phonetic features a. Related to sound that comprises words Issue of segmentation Where are the word boundaries CoArticulation (Individual speech sounds, overlap the listener finds the gaps in between the words) How is continuous signal divided up into phonemes, syllables, and words We use the context (topdown processing) Segments words utilizing semantic knowledge Use of words boundaries where they make sense. Lack of invariance speech signals are highly variable within a talker, even more variable across talkers. No two production are exactly alike We manage to reliably extract the intended meaning of utterance despite variability (Individual differences) Speech signals change due to diff. In talker (idiolect) speaking rate, dialect and CoArticulation. We see a lack of invariance in speech signals due to the fact all utterance are different (Contextual influences) Background noise (quiet room or busy street) can interfere with transmission of a signal from a talker to a listener. Degraded signal quality can occur depending on accuracy of articulation. Statistical learning Likelihood that a given word is followed by some other word Speech errors otherwise called parapraxis (slips of the tongue/Freudian slips) likely these are influence of memory or misfired utterances of semantically related or phonological similar concepts Gardenpath sentences Expectation of sentence meaning leads you down the wrong parsing path. They are grammatically correct sentences that begins in such a way that is likely to be misinterpreted. (The old man the boat,) Word frequency effect – Ps responds more rapidly to high frequency words than they do to low frequency. Most will respond quicker to hot (HF) than to legalization (LF) Word superiority effect Letter are easier to recognize (advantages) when embedded in a word, harder to recognize with a nonword or in isolation.