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The amount of surface wax on each side of waxed paper bags

Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780123948113 | Authors: Sheldon M. Ross ISBN: 9780123948113 226

Solution for problem 51 Chapter 8

Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 5th Edition

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Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780123948113 | Authors: Sheldon M. Ross

Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 5th Edition

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Problem 51

The amount of surface wax on each side of waxed paper bags is believed to be normally distributed. However, there is reason to believe that there is greater variation in the amount on the inner side of the paper than on the outside. A sample of 75 observations of the amount of wax on each side of these bags is obtained and the following data recorded. Wax in Pounds per Unit Area of Sample Outside Surface Inside Surface x = .948 y = .652 _x2 i = 91 _y2 i = 82 Conduct a test to determine whether or not the variability of the amount of wax on the inner surface is greater than the variability of the amount on the outer surface ( = .05).

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ElbowComplex Distalhumerus Medialepicondyle • Attachmentsitefor: Olecranonfossa Jointcapsule • Deepdepressiononposteriorsurface ofdistalhumerus Ulnarcollateralligament Superficialflexormusclesoftheforearm • Proximaltothetrochlea • Olecranonprocess(ulna)fitsinto Lateralepicondyle thisnotchwhenelbowisextended • Attachmentsitefor: Radialcollateralligament Superficialextensormusclesoftheforearm Capitulum • Hemisphericshape • Situatedonanterioranddistalaspectofhumerus • Doesnotextendposteriorly Trochlea • Pulley-shapedsurface • 330 surfacearea Radial&coronoidfossae • Shallowdepressionsonanteriorsurfaceofdistalhumerus • Proximaltothecapitulumandtrochlea,respectively • Allowcloseapproximationbetweenhumerusandtheradiusandulnaduring maximumelbowflexion • (RadialHead–RadialFossa,CoronoidProcessofUlna–CoronoidFossa) ProximalUlna Largerthandistalend Olecranonprocess • Hooklikeprojection • Extendsproximallyandanteriorly Coronoidprocess • Superiorsurfaceformsflooroftrochlearnotch • Lateralaspectisasmoothovalfacet,i.e.,radialnotch Trochlearnotch • Articulateswithtrochleaofthehumerus Radialnotch • Articulateswithheadoftheradius Smallerthandistalend Radialhead • Disc-shapedexpansionofproximalendoftheradius • Proximalendisconcave(fovea)Articulateswiththecapitulum (Humerus) • Rimarticulateswithradialnotch(Ulna) ElbowJoint Hinge-typejoint(Uni-Axial) Allowsonlyflexion&extension 2interrelatedjoints -Humeroulnararticulation -Humeroradialarticulation ElbowLigaments Radial(lateral)andulnar(medial)collateralligaments:supportforthesidesofthe joint. Annularligament:holdstheproximalradioulnarjointtogether UlnohumeralJoint • Thejointisaunionbetweenthetrochleaonthedistalendofthehumerus andthetrochlearnotchontheulna. • Onthefrontoftheulnaisthecoronoidprocesswhichmakescontactinthe coronoidfossaofthehumerus,limitingflexionintheterminalstagesof motion • Ontheposteriorsideistheolecranonprocess,whichmakescontactwiththe olecranonfossaonthehumerus,terminatingextension. RadialCollateralLigament • Provideslateralstability • Resistsvarustorques • Preventselbowadduction • Rarelyinjured UlnarCollateralLigament • Providesmedialsupport • Resistsvalgustorques • Preventelbowabduction • Manycontactsports&throwingactivitiesplacestressonmedial aspectofjoint,resultingininjury ProximalRadioulnarArticulation • Pivot-typejoint(uni-axial) • Minimalbonysupport • Annularligamentmaintainsradialheadinitsjoint RadioUnlarjoint • Astheradiuscrossesovertheulnainpronation,thedistalendoftheulna moveslaterally. • Interosseusmembraneisthesiteformuscularattachmentandensuresthat theradiusandulnamaintainaspecificrelationshiptoeachother. LateralEpicondylitis “TennisElbow” – inflammation,sorenessorpainontheoutside(lateral)sideofthe upperarmnearelbow. MOI=repetitivemicrotraumatoinsertionofwristextensormuscles RiskFactors – Repetitivegripping&twisting – Poororimpropertechnique – Poororimproperequipment MedialEpicondylitis “Golfer’sElbow” – inflammation,sorenessorpainontheinside(medial)sideofthe upperarmnearelbow. MOI=repeatedforcefulwristflexionandextremevalgustorqueontheelbow Medialstrain – initialforwardphaseofthrow – handandelbowlagbehindtrunkandshoulder ElbowMovements Flexion movementofforearmtoshoulderbybendingtheelbowtodecreaseitsangle Extension movementofforearmawayfromshoulderbystraighteningtheelbowtoincreaseits angle Pronation internalrotarymovementofradiusonulnathatresultsinhandmovingfrompalm- uptopalm-downposition Supination externalrotarymovementofradiusonulnathatresultsinhandmovingfrompalm- downtopalm-upposition MusclesoftheElbow Flexion • BicepsBrachii • Brachialis • Brachioradialis • PronatorTeres Extension • TricepsBrachii • Anconeus Supination • BicepsBrachii • Supinator • Brachioradialis Pronation • PronatorTeres • PronatorQuadratus • Brachioradialis

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Chapter 8, Problem 51 is Solved
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Textbook: Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Edition: 5
Author: Sheldon M. Ross
ISBN: 9780123948113

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The amount of surface wax on each side of waxed paper bags