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A large fraction of the thermal energy generated in the

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition | ISBN:  9780073398174 | Authors: Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles ISBN: 9780073398174 56

Solution for problem 18P Chapter 1

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition

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Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition | ISBN:  9780073398174 | Authors: Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition

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Problem 18P

Problem 18P

A large fraction of the thermal energy generated in the engine of a car is rejected to the air by the radiator through the circulating water. Should the radiator be analyzed as a closed system or as an open system? Explain.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

General Zoology Week 8, Exam 4 Material Phylum Arthro pod : jointed foot legs) Consists of over 1 million species and makes up about 80% of all living species Can be found in all free­living habitats Organization I. Features of the first arthropods—trilobites Trilobites—marine organisms that lived between 550­200 MYA External Features: head & trunk regions o Biramous (two branched) appendages; found in other primitive, aquatic arthropods like horseshoe crabs o One pair of antennae and one pair of compound eyes  Ommatidia: light­sensing units of compound eye o No specialized mouthparts  Exoskeleton­ hard outer covering o Protects body o Allows for efficient muscle attachment o Allows legs to be rigid and jointed o Usually made of chitin­ a polysaccharide (sugar polymer) similar to cellulose; chitin can be combined with:  Protein­ to be tough, yet flexible  Protein and tanning compounds (i.e. Phenol)­ to be hard and brittle  Movement and muscles o Dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscles move body segments o Protractor and retractor muscles move legs forward and backward, respectively o Extender and flexor muscles move legs away from and toward the body’s midline, respectively  Nervous system o Supraesophageal ganglion­ functions as the brain o Circumesophageal connective­ connects upper and lower ganglia o Subesophageal ganglion­ controls feeding and mouthparts o Ventral nerve cord o Segmental ganglia­ controls muscles and legs of segments  Circulatory system o Open system (hemocoel blood cavity)  Digestive system o The ectodermis, which secretes chitinous material, invagenates, or pushes in on itself, to form the foregut and hindgut o The endodermis, which does NOT secrete chitinous material, opens to form the midgut o Foregut­ food storage and/or grinding o Midgut­ absorption of nutrients o Hindgut­ water absorption II. Terrestrial Adaptations in Arthropods  Terrestrial Adaptations are present in three lineages: oArachnida (scorpions, spiders, ticks, mites, etc.) oMyriapoda (centipedes and millipedes) oInsecta (I think you get the picture)  Excretory Products o Unlike aquatic arthropods which produce ammonia or annelids and onychophorans which produce urea, terrestrial arthropods uric acid (insects) and guanine (spiders and scorpions); producing these wastes requires a higher energy cost, but it allows the waste to be less toxic and conserve more water  Excretory System o Malpighian Tubules (M.T.): tubular extensions from the gut that remove guanine or uric acid from the blood (hemolymph); tubules are located between the midgut and hindgut  Guanine and water are removed from the blood by the M.T.  Guanine and water are then moved to the hindgut where the water is reabsorbed and the guanine is excreted  Respiratory System o Tracheae that carry air directly to tissues (found in myriapods, insects, and some arachnids) o Lungs that oxygenate blood (only found in arachnids; one pair of book lungs) III. Arthropod Diversity  Subphylum Chelicerata oNamed for their chelicerae: mouthparts formed from pincers at the ends of appendages oBody consists of two main parts:  Cephalothorax: front section of animal built for feeding and locomotion; houses the chelicerae, walking legs, and a pair of pedipalps, which can function as tactile organs (spiders) or as large, modified weapons (claws of scorpions)  Abdomen: back section of animal built for respiration o Other feature include a loss of antennae, a primitively marine ancestry, and the presence of coxal glands (used for collecting and excreting waste) o Earliest members: Sea scorpions (Eurypterids); large marine predators that lived 500 to 225 MYA o Class Arachnida—Terrestrial chelicerates  Respiration­ book lungs and/or tracheae  Excretion­ Malpighian tubules, guanine  Reproduction­ sperm transfer and internal fertilization  Superclass Myri pod : many legs o Centipedes: 8,000 species, 20 to over 300 pairs of legs o Millipedes: 12,000 species, 34 to over 400 pairs of legs o Retained Primitive Features:  Head and trunk regions  One pair of antennae  Compound eyes o Terrestrial Adaptations:  Uniramous (single branched) appendages  Uric acid production  Malpighian tubules o Centipedes: Class Chilo po (Mouth foot)  Fast moving predators  One pair of legs per segment  Flat body  poison claws (modified first legs held underneath mouthparts)  No defensive secretions o Millipedes: Class Diplo pod (Two feet)  Slow moving detritivores  Two pairs of legs per segment  No poison claws  Defensive secretions (some can produce a form of cyanide)

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Chapter 1, Problem 18P is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach
Edition: 8
Author: Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles
ISBN: 9780073398174

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 18P from chapter: 1 was answered by , our top Engineering and Tech solution expert on 08/01/17, 09:10AM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: radiator, system, generated, circulating, closed. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 17 chapters, and 2295 solutions. Since the solution to 18P from 1 chapter was answered, more than 715 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach , edition: 8. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073398174. The answer to “A large fraction of the thermal energy generated in the engine of a car is rejected to the air by the radiator through the circulating water. Should the radiator be analyzed as a closed system or as an open system? Explain.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 41 words.

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