Many-Electron Atoms and Electron Configurations (Sections)
(a) What are “valence electrons”? (b) What are “core electrons”? (c) What does each box in an orbital diagram represent? (d) What quantity is represented by the half arrows in an orbital diagram?
Lecture: Development Over arching Themes Developmental psychologist: focus on the development of people from conception to death. Develop physically, conceptually, cognitively etc. Nature vs. Nurture To what extent does our genetic blue print inﬂuence our environment and to what extent does our environment inﬂuence us. It is a combination to both nature and nurture Does not mean they are contribution equally There are instances in which one may outweigh another Continuity vs. Stages Continuous v. discontinuous Is development a gradual, continuous process where you keep adding a little bit more Or does it proceed through a sequence of particular stages where every stage has a milestone you need to meet- one you meet the milestone…you go to the next level in development Stairs (stages) vs Elevator (continuity) Stability vs. Change Do our earlier traits (the markers of our earlier development) continue through our life or do we become diﬀerent people as we age You are shy at age 1, you are shy at age 90 vs. you are shy at age 1, but you are a diﬀerent person at each development. Prenatal Development Development begins with the creation of a zygote One cell organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg Each cell in the human body develop from this one cell The prenatal period extends from conception to birth Encompassing approx. 9 month period Great deal of development during this time Germinal - First two weeks post conception Most often, mother does not yet know she is pregnant Embryonic - Next six weeks Organism begins to form and function Fetal - 9 weeks to birth The embryo (fetus) begins to look unmistakingly human in nature Prenatal Development At each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors inﬂuence our development The placenta: Transfers nutrients and oxygens from mother to fetus Connects the mother’s body to the growing fetus’s body Crucial: screens out many potentially harmful substances Teratogens are harmful agents that can impede development Teratogen: any harmful agent that is past from mother to growing baby which can impede the growing embryo’s development Ex. virus (HIV), drugs, Smoking, alcohol Lasting eﬀects Ex. teens who’s mothers drank during pregnancy have a higher risk of alcoholism during adolescents At any stage of development - Teratogens can be transferred from mother to baby. Limbs may not develop properly, head size eﬀected etc. Maturation Maturation is the biologically process that enables orderly changes in behavior that are relatively uninﬂuenced by experience results in many of our commonality regardless of our speciﬁc experiences Ex. learning to crawl before walking, using nouns before adjectives Maturation sets the basic course of development; experience adjusts it. Experience can hasten or slow down development 3 Types of Maturation: Motor Developent Attachment Language Development Motor Development The developing brain enables physical development Motor development follows an universal sequence Regardless of where you are raised, when you are born…the general pattern is universal Ex. babies roll over before able to sit up unsupported Not reﬂective of observational learning, an outcome of a maturing nervous system We know this because - even blind children crawl before they walk There are, however, individual diﬀerences in timing Related to genetics along with environment Identical twins typically begin to walk within the same day - suggesting there is strong genetic role in saturation Ex. In the United States about 25% of babies walk by the time they turn 11months, 50% walk within a week of 1st baby, 90% walk by the time they are 15 months old Rapid motor development has been observed in some cultures cultural diﬀerences Some cultures provide practice in motor skills soon after birth and result in babies walking earlier Harlow’s Monkeys Research in the 1950s suggested that attachment is not associated with nourishment Bread monkeys to understand their learning Separated the babies from their mothers and put them in cells with a baby blanket When blanket would be taking away for washing - the monkeys would become extremely distressed Harlow devised an experiment to unpack this ﬁnding Created two artiﬁcial mothers One wire mother that feeds them One blanket mother that comforts them Consistently, the monkeys chose the blanket mother over the wire mother For comfort When Frightened As a base when exploring John Bowlby posited that there is a biological basis to attachment: Babies are programmed to behave in a manner that will trigger a protective, loving response from a adults Adults are programmed to respond to the behaviors with love, warmth, and protection Baby smiles, adult smiles Baby reaches out, adult picks baby up Attachment Styles Babies from birth are social creatures Critical parent-child bond- helps in survival Parents protect child Child learns to stay close to their parents and follow their lead Mary Ainsworth developed a method called the strange situation paradigm to asses quality of attachment Put infants in short separations from parents and observed their reaction Attachment styles: Secure Play and explore comfortably when mother is in the room Become visibly upset when the mother leaves Becomes quickly comforted when mother returns Anxious-Ambivalent Play and explore comfortably when mother is in the room Become visibly upset when the mother leaves Cannot be comforted even when the mother return Avoidant Seek little contact with mother when they are in the room Are not particularly distressed when mother leaves the room Secure attachment is predictive of resilience, self-reliance, curiosity, and leadership Secure attachment appears to be the most common type of attachment irrespective of culture The prevalence of other type of attachment changes from culture to culture Language Development Form ﬁrst birthday to HS graduation - an individual learns about 60,000 words How are we able to do this Humans have a large facility for language Able to sort through them, (without eﬀort), assemble them and talk about 3 words per second Rarely form sentence in our mind before speaking, typically we assemble them automatically Receptive Language Ability to comprehend 4-months: Begin to discriminate speech sounds Babies are more able to discriminate speech sounds than adults As we get older, loose ability to discriminate speed sounds 8-months: Begin to understand word meaning Productive Language Ability to produce words Matures after respective language 4-months: Begin to babble Ex. Baaabaababa, Mamamamamamam Includes sounds of various languages, not just the language the baby is exposed to 10-months: the sounds outside the language the babies are spoken to disappear 12-months: Begin to speak Experience can either hasten or slow down development Receptive skills always one step ahead of productive skills, able to understand more before they can speak One Word Stage -> 3-50 words -> One word per day -> two-word stage (Telegraphic Speech) Telegraphic Speech: Two line wording involving nouns and verbs Fast Mapping: The process by which children connect a word to a concept after only one exposure Ex. baby sees a dog for the ﬁrst time - suddenly acquire the word for a dog Critical: Allows us to pick up language very quickly Common errors in children’s language use: Overextension: Children incorrectly use a word to describe a wider set of objects than it is meant to describe Ex. Calling every 4 legged animal a doggy - Calling all men daddy Under extensions: Child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of object than it is meant for Ex. Baby calls for a cup, when you give them a generic organs cup - they cry and push away…they want their special blue cup Ex. A doll is only their favorite fall - other dolls are not dolls too Overgeneralization’s : the application of a grammatical rule in cases where it doesn’t apply Ex. “ If I Knowed the last bug I hated would be the last bug I hated, I woulda rated it slower" Bilingualism There is no one point in which someone is considered bilingual Ex. You are able to understand but not produce speech…can be considered bilingual Language skills Balances vs. Unbalance Do you need to know as much in your ﬁrst language as you do in your second language If you have equal control of both languages = Balanced Bilingual If you are far more dominant in native language = Unbalanced Bilingual Reception vs. Productive Receptive Bilingual = Somebody who understands the second language Productive Bilingual = Somebody who can speak and understand the language Additive vs. Subtractive (relation between the languages) Additive Bilingual = Learn one language growing up, then add a second language Subtractive Bilingual = Learns a second language that begins to take the place of the ﬁst language Early vs. Late (age of acquisition Are you learning language during childhood years (early) Are you learning second language during adolescents/adulthood (late) The earlier you learn a second language, the easier it will be Early Bilingual : Simultaneous (birth to 3 years) vs. Sequential (3 to 7 years) Simultaneous = a child that learns and requires both languages Sequential = Developed basic language ﬁrst, then add second language Key Stage Theories Piaget: Cognitive Development Kohlberg: Moral Development Erikson: Psychosocial Development Cognitive Development Piaget believed that children develop as a result of maturation, as well as their interactions with their environments Assimilation: Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them Ex. A child goes to zoo, sees a four legged animal and calls it a dog - Dog is the only animal they know that has four legs Accommodation: Changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences Ex. A child that is able to change mental concept from…all four legged animals are dogs to some four legged animals who also bark are dogs Piaget believed the progress through stages are highly inﬂuenced by age Piaget posited that there are four stages of development Sensorimotor Period (birth to age 2) Pre operational Period (ages 2-7) Concrete Operational Period (ages 7-11) Formal Operational Period (ages 11 and up) Sensorimotor Stage Children learn to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions Major development is the appearance of symbolic thought Key to this is the development of object permanence, the recognition that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible Piaget believed children developed object permanence around 18months Recent Research suggests Piaget was wrong; children develop it earlier - underestimated children’s development Pre operational Stage Children engage in symbolic thought, representing things with words and images Nevertheless, there are characteristic ﬂaws in their reasoning Conservation: the recognition the the amount of a substance doesn’t change simply because its appearance has changed Centration: Tendency to focus on one feature of a problem Egocentrism Very limited ability to view something from another person’s perspective Concrete Operational Stage Characterized by the ability to perform operations with symbolic thought Operational thinking allows children to mentally combine, separate, order, and transform tangible objects and actions, as well as actual events Children are capable of conversation and decantation, and there is a marked decline in their egocentrism Unable to think abstractly Formal Operational Stage This stage is marked by the ability to apply operations to abstract concepts Able to think of love, freedom etc. Thought is systematic, logical, and reﬂective During this stage, adolescents become capable of solving hypothetical propositions and deducing consequences Psychosocial Development Psychosocial Stage Developmental Stage Trust vs. Mistrust Infant is solely dependent on caregiver If Infant gets what it needs to thrive - Infancy (0-1) will develop a trusting sense of the world If infant is neglects - will develop a mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Children learn to exercise their free will and do things for themselves Toddlerhood (2-3) Initiative vs. Guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans - leave this stage Preschool (4-6) with a case of initiative Become guilt Industry vs.Inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks If they do not develop the please, Elementary will develop a low sense of self worth Intimacy vs. Isolation Teenagers work on reﬁning sense of self by testing diﬀerent roles and merge them to develop a single Early Adulthood identity Otherwise become confused about who they are Generatively vs. Stagnation During adulthood, people continue to build their lives, focusing on their career and family Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are Middle Adulthood contributing to the world by being active in their home and community Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world Integrity vs. Despair This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reﬂecting back on life Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair Late Adulthood Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death