- Chapter 1:
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter and Measurement
- Chapter 10:
- Chapter 10: Gases
- Chapter 11:
- Chapter 11: Liquids and Intermolecular Forces
- Chapter 12:
- Chapter 12: Solids and Modern Materials
- Chapter 13:
- Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions
- Chapter 14:
- Chapter 14: Chemical Kinetics
- Chapter 15:
- Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium
- Chapter 16:
- Chapter 16: AcidBase Equilibria
- Chapter 17:
- Chapter 17: Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
- Chapter 18:
- Chapter 18: Chemistry of the Environment
- Chapter 19:
- Chapter 19: Chemical Thermodynamics
- Chapter 2:
- Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
- Chapter 20:
- Chapter 20: Electrochemistry
- Chapter 21:
- Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry
- Chapter 22:
- Chapter 22: Chemistry of the Nonmetals
- Chapter 23:
- Chapter 23: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
- Chapter 24:
- Chapter 24: The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry
- Chapter 3:
- Chapter 3: Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
- Chapter 4:
- Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution
- Chapter 5:
- Chapter 5: Thermochemistry
- Chapter 6:
- Chapter 6: Electronic Structure of Atoms
- Chapter 7:
- Chapter 7: Periodic Properties of the Elements
- Chapter 8:
- Chapter 8: Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding
- Chapter 9:
- Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
- Chapter A:
Chemistry: The Central Science 12th Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition
For a substituted aromatic ring, the effect of an electron-donating substituent that increases the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.
A type of double-stranded DNA in which the 59 and 39 ends of each strand are joined by phosphodiester groups.
A semiconducting material formed from two or more elements. (Section 12.7)
Triglycerides that are solids atroom temperature.
Fourier transform NMR (FT-NMR)
The modern NMR method that is based on a constant magnetic fi eld, a short pulse of electromagnetic radiation, and a mathematical Fourier transform to produce the spectrum
Gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit infrared radiation (radiant heat), “trapping” heat in the atmosphere. (Section 18.2)
An equation that is often employed to calculate the pH of buffered solutions: pH = pKa + log 3conjugated base4 3acid4
A cyclic compound containing at least one heteroatom (such as S, N, or O) in the ring.
A bond between oppositely charged ions. The ions are formed from atoms by transfer of one or more electrons. (Section 8.1)
The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom when the atom is in its ground state. (Section 7.4)
A series of atoms, ions, or molecules having the same number of electrons. (Section 7.3)
Any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by donating a pair of electrons.
Low-resolution mass spectrometry
Instrumentation that is capable of separating only ions that differ in mass by 1 or more amu.
Polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms whose difference in electronegativity is between approximately 0.5 and 1.9.
For light, the orientation of the electric field.
Refers to two hydrogens bonded to a carbon atom. When a different atom replaces one or the other, the carbon becomes a chiral center. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are prochiral. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol
A six-membered cyclic form of a monosaccharide.
The difference in energy between a resonance hybrid and the most stable of its hypothetical contributing structures in which electrons are localized on particular atoms and in particular bonds.
sigma (s) bond
A bond that is characterized by circular symmetry with respect to the bond axis.
A reaction that converts an aldehyde or ketone into an alkene, with the introduction of one or more carbon atoms.