- Chapter 1:
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter and Measurement
- Chapter 10:
- Chapter 10: Gases
- Chapter 11:
- Chapter 11: Liquids and Intermolecular Forces
- Chapter 12:
- Chapter 12: Solids and Modern Materials
- Chapter 13:
- Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions
- Chapter 14:
- Chapter 14: Chemical Kinetics
- Chapter 15:
- Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium
- Chapter 16:
- Chapter 16: AcidBase Equilibria
- Chapter 17:
- Chapter 17: Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
- Chapter 18:
- Chapter 18: Chemistry of the Environment
- Chapter 19:
- Chapter 19: Chemical Thermodynamics
- Chapter 2:
- Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
- Chapter 20:
- Chapter 20: Electrochemistry
- Chapter 21:
- Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry
- Chapter 22:
- Chapter 22: Chemistry of the Nonmetals
- Chapter 23:
- Chapter 23: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
- Chapter 24:
- Chapter 24: The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry
- Chapter 3:
- Chapter 3: Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
- Chapter 4:
- Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution
- Chapter 5:
- Chapter 5: Thermochemistry
- Chapter 6:
- Chapter 6: Electronic Structure of Atoms
- Chapter 7:
- Chapter 7: Periodic Properties of the Elements
- Chapter 8:
- Chapter 8: Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding
- Chapter 9:
- Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
- Chapter A:
Chemistry: The Central Science 12th Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition
Specific site on a heterogeneous catalyst or an enzyme where catalysis occurs. (Section 14.7)
A term used initially to classify benzene and its derivatives. More accurately, it is used to classify any compound that meets the Hückel criteria for aromaticity (Section 21.2A).
boundary surface diagram.
Diagram of the region containing a substantial amount of the electron density (about 90 percent) in an orbital. (7.7)
An equation that uses chemical symbols to show what happens during a chemical reaction. (3.7)
A type of double-stranded DNA in which the 59 and 39 ends of each strand are joined by phosphodiester groups.
A compound containing a metal ion bonded to a group of surrounding molecules or ions that act as ligands. (Section 23.2)
An imaginary network of points on which the repeating motif of a solid may be imagined to be laid down so that the structure of the crystal is obtained. The motif may be a single atom or a group of atoms. Each lattice point represents an identical environment in the crystal. (Section 12.2)
Proteins that consist of chains that are coiled into compact shapes.
A law stating that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight. (Section 10.8)
A way to view furanose and pyranose forms of monosaccharides. The ring is drawn fl at and most commonly viewed through its edge with the anomeric carbon on the right and the oxygen atom of the ring to the rear
Heat of reaction (DH0 )
The difference in enthalpy between reactants and products. If the enthalpy of products is lower than that of the reactants, heat is released and the reaction is exothermic. If the enthalpy of the products is higher than that of the reactants, energy is absorbed, and the reaction is endothermic
The mass of one mole of a substance in grams; it is numerically equal to the formula weight in atomic mass units. (Section 3.4)
nucleophilic aromatic substitution
A substitution reaction in which an aromatic ring is attacked by a nucleophile, which replaces a leaving group.
Order of precedence of functions
A ranking of functional groups in order of priority for the purposes of IUPAC nomenclature.
The ease with which the electron cloud of an atom or a molecule is distorted by an outside influence, thereby inducing a dipole moment. (Section 11.2)
A reaction that can produce two or more constitutional isomers but nevertheless produces one as the major product.
The conversion of an aryl diazonium salt into fluorobenzene upon treatment with fluoroboric acid (HBF4).
Common name for silicon dioxide. (Section 22.4)
sp3 Hybrid orbital
A hybrid atomic orbital formed by the combination of one s atomic orbital and three 2p atomic orbitals.
An excellent leaving group (OTs). transition state (Sect. 6.6): A state through which a reaction passes. On an energy diagram, a transition state corresponds with a local maximum.
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