Many-Electron Atoms and Electron Configurations (Sections)
(a) The average distance from the nucleus of a 3s electron in a chlorine atom is smaller than that for a 3p electron. In light of this fact, which orbital is higher in energy? (b) Would you expect it to require more or less energy to remove a 3s electron from the chlorine atom, as compared with a 2p electron?
Vocabulary Atom: Smallest unit of a chemical element lement: one type of atom Co mpound: two or more elements combined Ion: An atom that has gained or lost electrons and therefore has a charge Cation: Positively charged ion Anion: Negatively charged ion Isotope: An atom of an element with a different number of neutrons Mole: amount of substance containing the number of atoms as exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 ● Called Avogadro's number ● Equals 6.022 10 23 * Molar Mass: mass (g) per mole of a substance Frequency (ν): number of cycles that pass through in a given period of time 1 −1 ● Units: s or s = Hertz (Hz) Wavelength (λ): Distance between two set points on a wave (ie. Crest to crest) ● Units: meter Amplitude (a): Vertical height of the crest of a wave ● Relates to intensity / brightness Content / Concepts The Atom: ● Smallest unit of an element ● Electrically neutral ● Nucleus is surrounded by electrons Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Location Charge