Define the wavelength and amplitude of a wave. How are these related to the energy of the wave?
The Nazi Holocaust and Genocide Study Questions I. Discuss the first period of Nazi persecution of Jews. II. Discuss the second period of Nazi persecution of Jews. III. Discuss the third period of Nazi persecutions of Jews. IV. Discuss the fourth period of Nazi persecution of the Jews. I. Intro A. Holocaust is of the ancient Greeks meaning “burnt whole or offering” B. The Jewish holocaust was one of the worst genocides in history a. Genocide: deliberate and intentional effort to wipe out a group of people based on racial, ethnic or religious being. b. Being Jewish is a culture; a religious culture with common religious practices; it is not biological like Nazis think. i. this was the main group targeted ii. There were about 9 million Jews in Europe and about 6 million were killed by Nazis. iii. Almost all Jews in some countries, almost all were killed. In Germany, Austria, and Poland, 90% were killed. 89% were killed in Czechoslovakia. iv. These people were killed due to their religion. v. This mass killing took place at a rapid rate using skills and techniques Nazis increasingly refined to make the best killing machine possible. vi. Jewish survivors have given the holocaust their own name: The Shoah (Hebrew for catastrophe; destruction) vii. Some were Jews who could migrate to safer places like Middle East and United States to live. 1. This wasn’t easy for people to leave their homes. 2. Migrating was very expensive. viii. When the Nazi party started in 1920, the Nazis didn’t have a plan to build extermination plants with ovens and gas chambers for Jews. 1. When Hitler was appointed chancellor (Jan 30, 1933), even then they didn’t have a grand plan for genocide against Jews. 2. The plan that became the Nazi holocaust developed over time in response to a set of historical circumstances that grew out of WWII. ix. This is the fourth policy: persecution of the Jews. II. Study Question 1 (I): Discuss the first period of Nazi persecution of the Jews. A. This took place in 1933 and 1934. a. Began soon after Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany, Jan 30, 1933. b. His Nazi followers began to put pressure of Jewish businesses. c. Organized the boycott of Jewish businesses i. Boycott: stop buying from a business d. April 1933, this boycott wasn’t very successful. i. Germans wanted to continue shopping ii. Hitler didn’t have much support of anti-Jewish means e. 1933 -34, Hitler, using powers from enabling act, passed laws to prohibit Jews from certain professions like lawyers, hospitals, teachers, and government officials just because of their religion. III. Study Question 2: Discuss the second period of Nazi persecution of Jews A. This is more repressive and cruel, 1935-1938 a. Nuremburg Laws i. Didn’t call for genocide of Jews ii. These were to persecute Jews and persuade them to leave Germany iii. One law was the Reich Citizenship Law 1. Distinguished between citizens and subjects of Germany 2. This said what a citizen could do and was 3. Citizens could vote and be government officials and had civic rights and protected by las 4. Subjects had no political rights and no protection under the laws of the land. 5. To be a citizen, one had to prove they had no Jewish parents and grandparents. 6. Subjects had at least one Jewish parent or grandparent. 7. This defined who was Jewish. Doesn’t matter what you are, look like, worship, etc. If you couldn’t prove no parents of grandparents were Jewish, you were stripped of all civic rights. IV. Study Question 3: Discuss the third period of Nazi persecutions of Jews A. This was even more repressive and cruel: 1938-1941 a. This crossed into WWII where things got pretty bad B. Kristallnacht (the night of broken glass) a. This took place on the evening of November 9, 1938. b. Throughout Germany, Nazi attacked Jewish places of worship and destroyed Jewish businesses. c. Named after all of the smashed windows. d. About 100 Jews were killed defending Synagogues and businesses. e. About 30,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps. f. Concentration camps and turning towards Jewish persecution camps. i. These are different from extermination (death) camps. ii. These were holding camps, not death camps. g. This night was a pogrom or an organized attack on an ethnic or religious group. i. This wasn’t invented by Nazis ii. This happened all over Europe for centuries C. 1938, law was passed where Jews had to carry special identification cards that had J marked on them. a. Everywhere Jews went, they had to show their identification cards and were prohibited from places or events. i. Couldn’t go into a movie theatre, library, public pools, etc. much like the Jim Crow laws in the US. b. Jews had to wait in designated spots on public transportation. c. This was a highly segregated society. D. 1939, identification became worse a. Jews were required to wear yellow star of David on outer clothing b. This made them easily identified as outsiders. c. They weren’t allowed to walk on sidewalks and had to walk in gutters (aka they were trash) d. This was the year of the Nazi-Soviet Pact (Ribbentrop- Moltrov Pact) and things got much worse. i. put into act in September ii. Invaded Poland and split it between Russia and Germany. iii. This led to the start of WWII. e. Set up Nazi run government in Poland called Generalgouvernement. i. Reinhard Heydrich was in charge ii. Poland had a larger Jewish population than Germany. iii. When Nazis took over, they got more Jews under their control and were determined to remove them. iv. They began rounding them up and forced them to live in ghettos. 1. Ghetto: designated areas where Nazis forced Jews to live 2. Ghettos have existed for Jews since Middle Ages in Europe but disappeared by middle of 19 century but Nazis revived them. 3. Nazis would take all their land and belongings v. Reinhard Heydrich came up with the idea of putting Jews in ghettos 1. Very high ranking and powerful 2. While he was alive, he was the second most powerful Nazi after Hitler himself. 3. Many positions in state 4. Extremely ruthless and brutal to Jews 5. Hitler’s nickname for Heydrich “the man with the iron heart” which was a compliment. Hitler admired his ruthlessness. 6. Sept 21, 1939, Heydrich sent special order to Nazi forces in Poland to start putting them into ghettos. The Nazi forces had their own name: The Einsatzgruppen or Special Task Forces. 7. There were 5 at first and increased to 7. They were trained to be ruthless against Jews. 8. Largest ghetto was the Warsaw Ghetto. a. Construction started April 1940. b. In Warsaw (capital prior to Nazi-Sovier Pact) c. Borders never grew in size and was quite small but population did grow in size. d. There was disease, lack of food, crowding, etc. E. By 1940, 100,000’s of Jews were put into ghettos a. Guarding put a large strain on German resources during war time. b. Having all of these Jews in ghettos were putting strains on resources but they didn’t want these strains c. Came up with a plan of what to do with the Jews to eliminate strains during time of war. d. The Plan wasn’t a plan to kill all of the Jews. e. 1940, Madagascar Plan i. They wanted Jews gone from Europe but didn’t plan on killing them ii. This plan was to ship Jews to the island of Madagascar. iii. Hitler and Nazis even did studies on the island to figure out if it could sustain all of them with food, etc. iv. This plan was unsuccessful because Great Britain controlled the Suez Canal and refused to let German ships go through. v. Now they need a new plan. Still have strains on resources. F. June 22, 1941 a. On this day, Hitler and Nazi’s broke Nazi-Soviet Pact in a huge way i. They broke it by Hitler ordering German army to invade Soviet Union. ii. One ally attacked the other iii. This was Operation Barbarossa. 1. Largest invasion in the history of war 2. 4 million German troops were sent to invade Soviet Union that was a battle front 18,000 miles long. 3. Hitler was serious about Nazi Germany taking over. iv. Nazis gained the Polish territories of Soviet Union. 1. New Jews from these territories and even from part of the Soviet Union. v. Fighting against Soviet was very difficult and took lots of resources. vi. Need another was to reduce pressures on military resources. vii. Reinhard Heydrich came up with a new idea 1. Kill the Jews in large number to reduce pressures on Nazi military. 2. At this point, they didn’t kill them in gas chambers. 3. They would line Jews up on edges of trenches and shoot them then burry them (sometimes alive) 4. Killed about 1.2 million Jews this way. 5. During the most active time, they murdered Jews about 4,000-5,000 a day. 6. Largest mass shooting occurred in Babi Yar (by Kiev, Eukraine) september 29 and 30, 1941, they killed about 34,000 Jews. 7. This didn’t kill enough Jews fast enough. G. Wannsee Conference (Promise Question) a. Where plan of Nazi Holocaust started V. Study Question 4: Discuss the fourth period of Nazi persecution of the Jews A. Wannsee Conference a. Where Nazis designed and started the plan to use gas chambers to kill Jews in large numbers b. Named after a suburb in berlin c. Began January 20, 1942. This is when it was held. d. This was the “final solution” e. Nazi leaders first proposed ideas of extermination camps. (not concentration camps) f. Disposed bodies to disease wouldn’t spread. g. Reinhard Heydrich was one of the main architects of this i. When he came up with using gas chambers, he drew from Euthanasia program. ii. He took technologies from that and applied them to this new plan. iii. The camps set up included gas chambers, ovens, and allowed them to kill 20,000 a day per camp. iv. The main camps: Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka v. These were built on train lines to bring people in. h. Auschwitz was the largest and killed the most using Cyclon B. i. Operated 1942-1945 j. Auschwitz alone killed over 1 million Jews. i. This was only in operation for three years and killed that many people. ii. 12,000 a day were killed. k. Jews were main group targeted i. Communist and socialists were persecuted as well. ii. Criminals and “work-shy” which were unemployed or wanderers. iii. Johovah’s witnesses showed much resistance so were especially targeted as well iv. Homosexuals were targeted v. Tried to exterminate the Roma or gypsies. They were heavily targeted and almost entirely wiped out. vi. The groups, based on colors, were treated different in camps. vii. Roma children were often used in Nazi medical experiments. Especially Roma boys. viii. Slavs according to Nazi were Aryans but were inferior to Nazi Aryans according to Nazi Racial Science. These spoke Slavic language and in Slavic countries. Some with the right physical attributes could be converted. l. 6 million Jews were killed in Nazi holocaust. i. Hitler’s and Nazis documented what they did leaving much documentation and evidence. ii. 11-17million people died in extermination camps. m. Genocides are still happening i. Since 1945, there have been more. ii. We aren’t good from learning from mistakes in the past. iii. Rwanda Genocide: this was in the 1990’s. iv. Cambodia Genocide, Former Yugoslavia (1990’s) v. Darfur genocide is happening now.