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What elements can have expanded octets? What elements

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 30E Chapter 9

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 30E

Problem 30E

What elements can have expanded octets? What elements should never have expanded octets?

Step-by-Step Solution:
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Chapter 1 Economics: Social science dealing with scarce resources. Economics Social science dealing with the use of scarce resources to meet unlimited wants. 2-part definition – scarce resources and material wants. Scarcity Unlimited wants Resources Micro vs macro - Various differences 3 questions for an economic system What do we produce How do we produce Who will receive What answers these questions What are the choices Choice 1 Demand driven economy. Market mechanism. Prices are the signal! Free enterprise. Choice 2 Command system. Central planning. Centralized control. “Authority” knows best. What is the result Mixed economic systems Combination of both U.S. There is capitalism as well as command driven economies in a few places. Capitalism – Characteristics. It’s imperfect. There is no perfect economic system. 1. Limited government. 2. Private property. 3. System of markets and prices. (Stabilizing force). - What is a market An institution that brings buyers and sellers together. - Prices are a SIGNAL. Note The essence of capitalism is not just a matter of exchanges as an end it is also about creating value by mobilizing both ingenuity and human energy. “Morality of capitalism” Palmer 4. Self-interest (Driving force) 5. Competition (Regulating force) 6. Free enterprise. Defined The freedom of businesses and individuals to organize and operate for profit in a competitive system without interference from government beyond same basic regulations necessary to protect the public. Resources (Factors of production) (THIS COULD BE ON THE EXAM) Human - Labor - Entrepreneurial Ability - Human capital Property - Land, etc. - Economic capital (The textbook refers to this as physical capital) o “Manufactured aid to production.” At any point in time they may be scarce What about money Not a resource Not productive per se Consider what we lost on 9/11 More physical capital or human capital. Are resources the only answer to prosperity Per economic studies 1. Political stability 2. Rule of law 3. Private property Chapter 2: Cost of highest value Miscellaneous terms Opportunity cost (Test question) “Cost of the highest valued, next-best alternative that is sacrificed.” We all have opportunity costs. Time- the true opportunity cost - How do we use our time… What do the numbers mean Millions Billions Trillions A “Time” perspective - Million seconds o 11 days (approx) - Billion seconds o 32 years (approx) - Trillion seconds o 32,000 years (approx.) Production possibilities curve. - Useful tool - 3 assumptions o Fixed technology o Fixed resources o Efficiency What do we see Marginal costs. Opportunity costs Increasing marginal costs Chapter 3: Supply and demand Variables and parameters Ceteris Paribus – “all other things equal” 3 Laws of economics: The law of demand: As price goes up, the quantity demanded goes down and vice versa. The law of supply: As price of input goes up, the quantity supplied goes up and vice versa. Law of equilibrium: The part where demand and supply intersect. The quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. Non-price determinants of demand - Tastes and preferences - Income= For normal goods, income increases and demand increases. For inferior goods, income increases and demand decreases. - Price of related goods - Expected future price. - Number of consumers that are willing to buy. Non-price determinants of supply - Price of inputs - Technology - Regulations - Subsidies - Price of other goods - Expectations New York once banned any soft drinks that were above 20oz. Philadelphia tries a different approach - Tax on sugary drinks. o Passed by city council (13-4) - 1.5 cents per oz. - At the distribution level… - Money used for o What else… education - Remember- if you want less of something… o TAX IT!! Price and wage controls Price ceiling- Limiting price increases - Rent control - Gasoline prices- 1970’s - Nixon wage and price controls- 1970 Price floor- Minimum price is established Price ceiling - Rent control o New York o California o Other areas o Per text- approx. 200 cities and towns What’s the purpose Affordable housing Moral intervention () What are the results - Shortage - T/F of income (From…to…) o LANDLORD TO TENANT! - No incentive to construct housing. - Non-price discrimination. - Black market. o Grease the palm… o Key deposit… Reduce maintenance - What gets left out - What happens to property o Property values o Tax base Law of unintended consequences. Minimum wage What’s the purpose Who works for minimum wage Update- the push for 15 dollars - Seattle, San Francisco, LA – move to 15 dollars per hour is on the way. - Seattle – 9.47 to 11.00 - San Francisco- 10.47 to 12.25 - LA- 15.37 for Hotel Workers - CBO- est. a Federal move to 10.10 = 500,000 less jobs. - In regards to the top cities… first wave results… o Seattle= Loss of 1,100 food service jobs. o San Fran= Loss of 2,000 jobs. What are the results - Surplus. - Reduced Qd for labor. - Layoffs. - Reduced hours. - Reduced benefits. - Wage progression (among other workers) - Some economists (Krugman) disagree… Who gets the boot - Highest paid o No - Least productive - Lowest skilled Is there ALWAYS a surplus - Mid-cities - What does the graph look like Price controls- final observations - Simple ideas in theory, but EXTREMELY complicated exercises in practice. - Political pressures invariably arise among “favored” producers. - Unintended consequences. They DISTORT markets…

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Chapter 9, Problem 30E is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

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