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Solutions for Chapter 8.11: Nucleophilic Substitution of Alkyl Sulfonates
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
activated complex (transition state)
The particular arrangement of atoms found at the top of the potential-energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products. (Section 14.5)
The term describing a carbonyl group (CRO bond) connected to an alkyl group or aryl group.
See alpha rays.
As protons are added one by one to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons similarly are added to the atomic orbitals. (7.9)
chemical shift (d)
In an NMR spectrum, the location of a signal, defined relative to the frequency of absorption of a reference compound, tetramethylsilane (TMS).
Chlorofl uorocarbons (CFCs, Freons)
Compounds with one or two carbons, chlorine, and fl uorine, formerly used as refrigerants
concentration of a solution.
The amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. (4.5)
A reaction in which an element reacts with a compound, displacing an element from it. (Section 4.4)
A material that, when stretched or otherwise distorted, returns to its original shape when the distorting force is released.
A cyclic ether in which oxygen is one atom of a three-membered ring
heat of sublimation
The enthalpy change, ?H, for vaporization of a solid. (Section 11.4)
hexagonal close packing
A crystal structure where the atoms are packed together as closely as possible. The close-packed layers adopt a two-layer repeating pattern, which leads to a primitive hexagonal unit cell. (Section 12.3)
Compounds that are similar in structure to CFCs but also possess at least one C!Hbond.
In additionreactions, the observation that the hydrogen atomis generally placed at the vinylic position alreadybearing the larger number of hydrogen atoms.
The science of extracting metals from their natural sources by a combination of chemical and physical processes. It is also concerned with the properties and structures of metals and alloys. (Section 23.1)
The pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis from pure solvent into the solution. (Section 13.5)
A measure of the force exerted on a unit area. In chemistry, pressure is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm) or torr: 760 torr = 1 atm; in SI units pressure is expressed in pascals (Pa). (Section 10.2)
A measure of the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase in concentration of a product with time. (Section 14.2)
Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with only one p orbital to form two hybridized atomic orbitals.
The study of how energy is distributed under the influence of entropy. For chemists, the thermodynamics of a reaction specifically refers to the study of the relative energy levels of reactants and products.