Solutions for Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: HalogensGet Full Solutions
A carbon atom adjacent to a carbonyl group
The binding of molecules to a surface. (Section 14.7)
amino acid residue
The individual repeating units in a polypeptide chain or protein.
The mass of an atom in atomic mass units. (3.1)
Enantiomers that lack a chiral center and differ because of hindered rotation.
A neutral molecule with nonadjacent positive and negative charges. An example of a betaine is the intermediate formed by addition of a Wittig reagent to an aldehyde or ketone
A process by which molecular oxygen is used to convert food into CO2, water, and energy.
The process in which dissolved solute comes out of solution and forms crystals. (12.1)
Dalton’s law of partial pressures
A law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone. (Section 10.6)
degree of substitution
For alkenes, a classification method that refers to the number of alkyl groups connected to the double bond.
The left side of an NMR spectrum.
The structure of the transition state for an exothermic step looks more like the reactants of that step than the products. Conversely, the structure of the transition state for an endothermic step looks more like the products of that step than the reactants.
When treated with a strong base, a quaternary ammonium halide undergoes b-elimination by an E2 mechanism to give the less-substituted alkene as the major product
A series of atoms, ions, or molecules having the same number of electrons. (Section 7.3)
The gradual decrease in atomic and ionic radii with increasing atomic number among the lanthanide elements, atomic numbers 57 through 70. The decrease arises because of a gradual increase in effective nuclear charge through the lanthanide series. (Section 23.1)
A polymer that isformed via anionic polymerization.
An achiral compound possessing two or more chiral centers that also has chiral isomers
Molar absorptivity (e)
The absorbance of a 1 M solution of a compound.
A polymer containing the !NHCO2! group as a repeating unit
The energy that can be released if given an opportunity