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Solutions for Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens

Solutions for Chapter 12.14
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Organic Chemistry, was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens includes 1 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9. Since 1 problems in chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens have been answered, more than 34112 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • actinide element

    Element in which the 5f orbitals are only partially occupied. (Section 6.8)

  • alloy.

    A solid solution composed of two or more metals, or of a metal or metals with one or more nonmetals. (21.2)

  • atomic mass unit (amu).

    A mass exactly equal to 1 12th the mass of one carbon-12 atom. (3.1)

  • beta sheet

    A structural form of protein in which two strands of amino acids are hydrogen-bonded together in a zipperlike configuration. (Section 24.7)

  • Brønsted-Lowry base

    A compound that can serve as a proton acceptor.

  • chemistry.

    The study of matter and the changes it undergoes. (1.1)

  • curved arrows

    Tools that are used for drawing resonance structures and for showing the flow of electron density during each step of a reaction mechanism.

  • decomposition reaction.

    The breakdown of a compound into two or more components. (4.4)

  • electron

    A negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the atomic nucleus; it is a part of all atoms. An electron has a mass 1>1836 times that of a proton. (Section 2.3)

  • exothermic process

    A process in which a system releases heat to its surroundings. (Section 5.2)

  • heat of sublimation

    The enthalpy change, ?H, for vaporization of a solid. (Section 11.4)

  • Homolytic bond cleavage

    Cleavage of a bond so that each fragment retains one electron; formation of radicals.

  • ionization energy

    The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom when the atom is in its ground state. (Section 7.4)

  • Le Châtelier’s principle

    A principle stating that when we disturb a system at chemical equilibrium, the relative concentrations of reactants and

  • Lewis acid

    Any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by accepting a pair of electrons.

  • Lewis structures

    A drawing style inwhich the electrons take center stage.linear polymer (Sect. 27.6): A polymer thathas only a minimal amount of branching or nobranching at all.

  • parts per billion (ppb)

    The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 109 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)

  • rate equation

    An equation thatdescribes the relationship between the rate of a reactionand the concentration of reactants.

  • resonance structures

    A series of structures that are melded together (conceptually) to circumvent the inadequacies of bond-line drawings.

  • triplet

    In NMR spectroscopy, a signal that is comprised of three peaks.

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