Solutions for Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens

Solutions for Chapter 12.14
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Organic Chemistry, was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens includes 1 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9. Since 1 problems in chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens have been answered, more than 16219 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • a-Carbon

    A carbon atom adjacent to a carbonyl group

  • adsorption

    The binding of molecules to a surface. (Section 14.7)

  • amino acid residue

    The individual repeating units in a polypeptide chain or protein.

  • atomic mass.

    The mass of an atom in atomic mass units. (3.1)

  • Atropisomers

    Enantiomers that lack a chiral center and differ because of hindered rotation.

  • Betaine

    A neutral molecule with nonadjacent positive and negative charges. An example of a betaine is the intermediate formed by addition of a Wittig reagent to an aldehyde or ketone

  • cellular respiration

    A process by which molecular oxygen is used to convert food into CO2, water, and energy.

  • crystallization.

    The process in which dissolved solute comes out of solution and forms crystals. (12.1)

  • Dalton’s law of partial pressures

    A law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone. (Section 10.6)

  • degree of substitution

    For alkenes, a classification method that refers to the number of alkyl groups connected to the double bond.

  • downfield

    The left side of an NMR spectrum.

  • Hammond’s postulate

    The structure of the transition state for an exothermic step looks more like the reactants of that step than the products. Conversely, the structure of the transition state for an endothermic step looks more like the products of that step than the reactants.

  • Hofmann elimination

    When treated with a strong base, a quaternary ammonium halide undergoes b-elimination by an E2 mechanism to give the less-substituted alkene as the major product

  • isoelectronic series

    A series of atoms, ions, or molecules having the same number of electrons. (Section 7.3)

  • lanthanide contraction

    The gradual decrease in atomic and ionic radii with increasing atomic number among the lanthanide elements, atomic numbers 57 through 70. The decrease arises because of a gradual increase in effective nuclear charge through the lanthanide series. (Section 23.1)

  • living polymer

    A polymer that isformed via anionic polymerization.

  • Meso compound

    An achiral compound possessing two or more chiral centers that also has chiral isomers

  • Molar absorptivity (e)

    The absorbance of a 1 M solution of a compound.

  • Polyurethane

    A polymer containing the !NHCO2! group as a repeating unit

  • Potential energy

    The energy that can be released if given an opportunity

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