Solutions for Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 12.14: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: HalogensGet Full Solutions
Element in which the 5f orbitals are only partially occupied. (Section 6.8)
A solid solution composed of two or more metals, or of a metal or metals with one or more nonmetals. (21.2)
atomic mass unit (amu).
A mass exactly equal to 1 12th the mass of one carbon-12 atom. (3.1)
A structural form of protein in which two strands of amino acids are hydrogen-bonded together in a zipperlike configuration. (Section 24.7)
A compound that can serve as a proton acceptor.
The study of matter and the changes it undergoes. (1.1)
Tools that are used for drawing resonance structures and for showing the flow of electron density during each step of a reaction mechanism.
The breakdown of a compound into two or more components. (4.4)
A negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the atomic nucleus; it is a part of all atoms. An electron has a mass 1>1836 times that of a proton. (Section 2.3)
A process in which a system releases heat to its surroundings. (Section 5.2)
heat of sublimation
The enthalpy change, ?H, for vaporization of a solid. (Section 11.4)
Homolytic bond cleavage
Cleavage of a bond so that each fragment retains one electron; formation of radicals.
The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom when the atom is in its ground state. (Section 7.4)
Le Châtelier’s principle
A principle stating that when we disturb a system at chemical equilibrium, the relative concentrations of reactants and
Any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by accepting a pair of electrons.
A drawing style inwhich the electrons take center stage.linear polymer (Sect. 27.6): A polymer thathas only a minimal amount of branching or nobranching at all.
parts per billion (ppb)
The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 109 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)
An equation thatdescribes the relationship between the rate of a reactionand the concentration of reactants.
A series of structures that are melded together (conceptually) to circumvent the inadequacies of bond-line drawings.
In NMR spectroscopy, a signal that is comprised of three peaks.