Solutions for Chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects

Organic Chemistry, was written by Patricia and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9. Chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects includes 3 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 3 problems in chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects have been answered, more than 10972 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • absorption spectrum

    In IR spectroscopy as well as UV-VIS spectroscopy, a plot that measures the percent transmittance or absorption as a function of frequency.

  • aldaric acid

    A dicarboxylic acid that is produced when an aldose or ketose is treated with a strong oxidizing agent, such as HNO3.

  • anti-periplanar

    A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of approximately 180°.

  • band gap

    The energy gap between a fully occupied band called a valence band and an empty band called the conduction band. (Section 12.7)

  • chemical reactions

    Processes in which one or more substances are converted into other substances; also called chemical changes. (Section 1.3)

  • collision model

    A model of reaction rates based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; it explains the factors influencing reaction rates in terms of the frequency of collisions, the number of collisions with energies exceeding the activation energy, and the probability that the collisions occur with suitable orientations. (Section 14.5)

  • combination reaction

    A chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single product. (Section 3.2)

  • dash

    In bond-line structures, agroup going behind the page.

  • diborane

    B2H6. A dimeric structure formed when one borane molecule reacts with another.

  • endo

    In Diels-Alder reactions that produce bicyclic structures, the positions that are syn to the larger bridge.

  • glycoside

    An acetal that is obtained by treating the cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide with an alcohol under acid-catalyzed conditions.

  • isoelectric point (pI)

    For an amino acid, the specific pH at which the concentration of the zwitterionic form reaches its maximum value.

  • limiting reactant (limiting reagent)

    The reactant present in the smallest stoichiometric quantity in a mixture of reactants; the amount of product that can form is limited by the complete consumption of the limiting reactant. (Section 3.7)

  • metathesis (exchange) reaction

    A reaction in which two substances react through an exchange of their component ions: AX + BY ¡ AY + BX. Precipitation and acid–base neutralization reactions are examples of metathesis reactions. (Section 4.2)

  • Molar absorptivity (e)

    The absorbance of a 1 M solution of a compound.

  • normal melting point

    The melting point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.6)

  • Optical purity

    The specifi c rotation of a mixture of enantiomers divided by the specifi c rotation of the enantiomerically pure substance (expressed as a percent). Optical purity is numerically equal to enantiomeric excess, but experimentally determined.

  • reaction mechanism

    A detailed picture, or model, of how the reaction occurs; that is, the order in which bonds are broken and formed and the changes in relative positions of the atoms as the reaction proceeds. (Section 14.6)

  • scientific law

    A concise verbal statement or a mathematical equation that summarizes a wide range of observations and experiences. (Section 1.3)

  • SN1

    A unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction.

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