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Solutions for Chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects

Organic Chemistry, was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9. Chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects includes 3 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 3 problems in chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects have been answered, more than 28179 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Acylation

    The process of introducing an acyl group, RCO! or ArCO!, onto an organic molecule.

  • Center of symmetry

    A point so situated that identical components of an object are located on opposite sides and equidistant from that point along any axis passing through it.

  • coordination compound.

    A neutral species containing one or more complex ions. (23.3)

  • Fluid-mosaic model

    A biological membrane that consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins, carbohydrates, and other lipids on the surface and embedded in the bilayer

  • hexagonal close packing

    A crystal structure where the atoms are packed together as closely as possible. The close-packed layers adopt a two-layer repeating pattern, which leads to a primitive hexagonal unit cell. (Section 12.3)

  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL)

    Plasma particles, density 1.06–1.21 g/mL, consisting of approximately 33% proteins, 30% cholesterol, 29% phospholipids, and 8% triglycerides.

  • isomers

    Compounds whose molecules have the same overall composition but different structures. (Sections 2.9 and 23.4)

  • Mass spectrum

    A plot of the relative abundance of ions versus their mass-to-charge ratio

  • Meisenheimer complex

    Theresonance-stabilized intermediate of a nucleophilicaromatic substitution reaction.

  • Molecular orbital (MO) theory

    A theory of chemical bonding in which electrons in molecules occupy molecular orbitals that extend over the entire molecule and are formed by the combination of the atomic orbitals that make up the molecule

  • Nernst equation

    An equation that relates the cell emf, E, to the standard emf, E°, and the reaction quotient, Q: E = E° - 1RT>nF2 ln Q. (Section 20.6)

  • nonionizing radiation

    Radiation that does not have sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule. (Section 21.9)

  • polar covalent bond

    A covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally. (Section 8.4)

  • radioactive

    Possessing radioactivity, the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus with accompanying emission of radiation. (Section 2.2; Chapter 21: Introduction)

  • Rearrangement

    A change in connectivity of the atoms in a product compared with the con nectivity of the same atoms in the starting material.

  • Reductive elimination

    Elimination of two substituents at a metal center, causing the oxidation state of the metal to decrease by two.

  • saponification

    The base-catalyzed hydrolysis of an ester. This method is used to make soap.

  • secondary cell

    A voltaic cell that can be recharged. (Section 20.7)

  • sigma complex

    The positively charged intermediate of an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction.

  • standard emf, also called the standard cell potential 1E°2

    The emf of a cell when all reagents are at standard conditions. (Section 20.4)

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