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Solutions for Chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
In IR spectroscopy as well as UV-VIS spectroscopy, a plot that measures the percent transmittance or absorption as a function of frequency.
A dicarboxylic acid that is produced when an aldose or ketose is treated with a strong oxidizing agent, such as HNO3.
A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of approximately 180°.
The energy gap between a fully occupied band called a valence band and an empty band called the conduction band. (Section 12.7)
Processes in which one or more substances are converted into other substances; also called chemical changes. (Section 1.3)
A model of reaction rates based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; it explains the factors influencing reaction rates in terms of the frequency of collisions, the number of collisions with energies exceeding the activation energy, and the probability that the collisions occur with suitable orientations. (Section 14.5)
A chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single product. (Section 3.2)
In bond-line structures, agroup going behind the page.
B2H6. A dimeric structure formed when one borane molecule reacts with another.
In Diels-Alder reactions that produce bicyclic structures, the positions that are syn to the larger bridge.
An acetal that is obtained by treating the cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide with an alcohol under acid-catalyzed conditions.
isoelectric point (pI)
For an amino acid, the specific pH at which the concentration of the zwitterionic form reaches its maximum value.
limiting reactant (limiting reagent)
The reactant present in the smallest stoichiometric quantity in a mixture of reactants; the amount of product that can form is limited by the complete consumption of the limiting reactant. (Section 3.7)
metathesis (exchange) reaction
A reaction in which two substances react through an exchange of their component ions: AX + BY ¡ AY + BX. Precipitation and acid–base neutralization reactions are examples of metathesis reactions. (Section 4.2)
Molar absorptivity (e)
The absorbance of a 1 M solution of a compound.
normal melting point
The melting point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.6)
The specifi c rotation of a mixture of enantiomers divided by the specifi c rotation of the enantiomerically pure substance (expressed as a percent). Optical purity is numerically equal to enantiomeric excess, but experimentally determined.
A detailed picture, or model, of how the reaction occurs; that is, the order in which bonds are broken and formed and the changes in relative positions of the atoms as the reaction proceeds. (Section 14.6)
A concise verbal statement or a mathematical equation that summarizes a wide range of observations and experiences. (Section 1.3)
A unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction.
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