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Solutions for Chapter 12.15: Multiple Substituent Effects
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
The process of introducing an acyl group, RCO! or ArCO!, onto an organic molecule.
Center of symmetry
A point so situated that identical components of an object are located on opposite sides and equidistant from that point along any axis passing through it.
A neutral species containing one or more complex ions. (23.3)
A biological membrane that consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins, carbohydrates, and other lipids on the surface and embedded in the bilayer
hexagonal close packing
A crystal structure where the atoms are packed together as closely as possible. The close-packed layers adopt a two-layer repeating pattern, which leads to a primitive hexagonal unit cell. (Section 12.3)
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
Plasma particles, density 1.06–1.21 g/mL, consisting of approximately 33% proteins, 30% cholesterol, 29% phospholipids, and 8% triglycerides.
Compounds whose molecules have the same overall composition but different structures. (Sections 2.9 and 23.4)
A plot of the relative abundance of ions versus their mass-to-charge ratio
Theresonance-stabilized intermediate of a nucleophilicaromatic substitution reaction.
Molecular orbital (MO) theory
A theory of chemical bonding in which electrons in molecules occupy molecular orbitals that extend over the entire molecule and are formed by the combination of the atomic orbitals that make up the molecule
An equation that relates the cell emf, E, to the standard emf, E°, and the reaction quotient, Q: E = E° - 1RT>nF2 ln Q. (Section 20.6)
Radiation that does not have sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule. (Section 21.9)
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally. (Section 8.4)
Possessing radioactivity, the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus with accompanying emission of radiation. (Section 2.2; Chapter 21: Introduction)
A change in connectivity of the atoms in a product compared with the con nectivity of the same atoms in the starting material.
Elimination of two substituents at a metal center, causing the oxidation state of the metal to decrease by two.
The base-catalyzed hydrolysis of an ester. This method is used to make soap.
A voltaic cell that can be recharged. (Section 20.7)
The positively charged intermediate of an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction.
standard emf, also called the standard cell potential 1E°2
The emf of a cell when all reagents are at standard conditions. (Section 20.4)