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Solutions for Chapter 12.20: The AdditionElimination Mechanism of Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 12.20: The AdditionElimination Mechanism of Nucleophilic Aromatic SubstitutionGet Full Solutions
As protons are added one by one to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons similarly are added to the atomic orbitals. (7.9)
boiling-point elevation (DTb).
The boiling point of the solution (Tb) minus the boiling point of the pure solvent (T° b). (12.6)
bonding atomic radius
The radius of an atom as defined by the distances separating it from other atoms to which it is chemically bonded. (Section 7.3)
The amount of acid or base a buffer can neutralize before the pH begins to change appreciably. (Section 17.2)
Polymerization in which molecules are joined together through condensation reactions. (Section 12.8)
A compound containing a metal ion bonded to a group of surrounding molecules or ions that act as ligands. (Section 23.2)
Protein that does not exhibit normal biological activities. (25.3)
In NMR spectroscopy,protons or carbon atoms whose surrounding electron density is poor.
A method for selectively cleaving and identifying the N-terminal amino acid of a polypeptide chain.
A reaction for which the product distribution is determined by the relative rates at which the products are formed.
In mass spectrometry,a plot that shows the relative abundance ofeach cation that was detected.
Theresonance-stabilized intermediate of a nucleophilicaromatic substitution reaction.
An instrument for measuring the ability of a compound to rotate the plane of plane-polarized light.
One of the four arrow-pushing patterns for ionic reactions.
A term used to designate the configuration of a chirality center, determined in the following way: Each of the four groups is assigned a priority, and the molecule is then rotated (if necessary) so that the #4 group is directed behind the page (on a dash). A clockwise sequence for 1-2-3 is designated as R.
An addition or substitution reaction in which one of two or more possible products is formed in preference to all others that might be formed.
Separation of a racemic mixture into its enantiomers; in mass spectrometry, a measure of how well a mass spectrometer separates ions of different mass.
Common leaving groups. Examples include tosylate, mesylate, and triflate ions.
Constitutional isomers in equilibrium with each other that differ in the location of a hydrogen atom and a double bond relative to a heteroatom, most commonly O, N, or S.
A net neutral compound that exhibits charge separation. Amino acids exist as zwitterions at physiological pH.
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