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Solutions for Chapter 12.21: Related Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitutions
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
A solid whose molecular arrangement lacks the regularly repeating long- range pattern of a crystal. (Section 12.2)
A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of exactly 180°.
atomic number (Z).
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. (2.3)
The enthalpy change, ?H, required to break a particular bond when the substance is in the gas phase. (Section 8.8)
The pressure at which a gas at its critical temperature is converted to a liquid state. (Section 11.4)
An elimination reaction involving the loss of H and OH.
A reaction characterized by the addition of two hydroxyl groups (OH) across an alkene.
Any process with a positive DG.
Compounds that contain only carbon, fluorine, and hydrogen (no chlorine).
Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with transition metals; these compounds contain the hydride ion, H-. (Section 22.2)
A system of measurement used in science and in most countries. The meter and the gram are examples of metric units. (Section 1.4)
Nonpolar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms whose difference in electronegativity is less than approximately 0.5.
The observation that second-row elements (C, N, O, and F) will form the necessary number of bonds so as to achieve a full valence shell (eight electrons).
plane of symmetry
A plane that bisects a compound into two halves that are mirror images of each other.
A polymer in which each monomer unit is joined to the next by an ester bond, as, for example, poly(ethylene terephthalate).
Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with two p orbitals to form three hybridized atomic orbitals.
A polymer in which its growing chains are terminated by formation of new functional groups at both ends of its chains. These new functional groups are introduced by adding reagents, such as CO2 or ethylene oxide, to the growing chains.
An ether(R!O!R) where the two R groups are notidentical.
A double-helix model for the secondary structure of a DNA molecule
High-molecular-weight esters that are constructed from carboxylic acids and alcohols.
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