Solutions for Chapter 19.4: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution in Acyl Chlorides
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
The product formed when the C"O group of a monosaccharide is reduced to a CHOH group.
For chair conformations of substituted cyclohexanes, a position that is parallel to a vertical axis passing through the center of the ring.
A low-energy molecular orbital resulting from the constructive interference between atomic orbitals.
A substance that changes the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a permanent chemical change in the process. (Section 14.7)
A semiconducting material formed from two or more elements. (Section 12.7)
A compound in which two p bonds are separated from each other by exactly one s bond.
Incorporation of a hetero atom into a solid to change its electrical properties. For example, incorporation of P into Si. (Section 12.7)
The number of valence electrons in an isolated atom minus the number of electrons assigned to the atom in the Lewis structure. (Section 8.5)
The number of times per second that one complete wavelength passes a given point. (Section 6.1)
Le Châtelier’s principle
A principle stating that when we disturb a system at chemical equilibrium, the relative concentrations of reactants and
A substance that exhibits one or more partially ordered liquid phases above the melting point of the solid form. By contrast, in nonliquid crystalline substances the liquid phase that forms upon melting is completely unordered. (Section 11.7)
A polymer of amino acids that has a molecular weight of less than 10,000. (Section 24.7)
A mixture of equal amounts of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory forms of a chiral molecule. A racemic mixture will not rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)
The combination of a Michael addition followed by an aldol condensation to form a ring.
A term used to designate the configuration of a chirality center, determined in the following way: Each of the four groups is assigned a priority, and the molecule is then rotated (if necessary) so that the #4 group is directed behind the page (on a dash). A counterclockwise sequence for 1-2-3 is designated as S.
S (Section 3.3
From the Latin, sinister, left; used in the R,S convention to show that the order of priority of groups on a chiral center is counterclockwise
A phenomenon observed most commonly for nonequivalent protons connected to adjacent carbon atoms, in which the multiplicity of each signal is affected by the other.
A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of exactly 0°.
An intermediate with tetrahedral geometry. This type of intermediate is formed when a nucleophile attacks the carbonyl group of a carboxylic acid derivative.
A reagent used to perform a Wittig reaction.
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