Solutions for Chapter 23.2: Fischer Projections and D,L Notation
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
A molecule containing two !OR or !OAr groups bonded to the same carbon
Carbohydrates that differ in confi guration only at their anomeric carbons.
A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of exactly 180°.
Center of symmetry
A point so situated that identical components of an object are located on opposite sides and equidistant from that point along any axis passing through it.
A polymerization that involves sequential addition reactions, either to unsaturated monomers or to monomers possessing other reactive functional groups.
complex ion (complex)
An assembly of a metal ion and the Lewis bases (ligands) bonded to it. (Section 17.5)
A molecule with one end having a partial negative charge and the other end having a partial positive charge; a polar molecule. (Section 8.4)
A unimolecular elimination reaction.
A term associatedwith the probability of finding an electron in aparticular region of space.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution
A reaction in which there is substitution of an electrophile, E1, for a hydrogen on an aromatic ring
An anion derived by loss of a hydrogen from a carbon alpha to a carbonyl group; the anion of an enol.
Measures chaos versus order and chaos is favorable
The splitting of a large nucleus into two smaller ones. (Section 21.6)
Fourier-transform NMR (FT-NMR)
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a technique in which the sample is irradiated with a short pulse that covers the entire range of relevant rf frequencies.
The ratio of the number of moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles of all components; abbreviated X, with a subscript to identify the component. (Section 10.6)
molecular orbital (MO)
An allowed state for an electron in a molecule. According to molecular-orbital theory, a molecular orbital is entirely analogous to an atomic orbital, which is an allowed state for an electron in an atom. Most bonding molecular orbitals can be classified as s or p, depending on the disposition of electron density with respect to the internuclear axis. (Section 9.7)
The pH of blood (approximately 7.3).
Elimination of two substituents at a metal center, causing the oxidation state of the metal to decrease by two.
Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with three p orbitals to form four hybridized atomic orbitals.
A synthetictechnique for preparing racemic a-amino acidsfrom aldehydes.
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