Solutions for Chapter 26.10: Phosphodiesters, Oligonucleotides, and Polynucleotides
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 26.10: Phosphodiesters, Oligonucleotides, and PolynucleotidesGet Full Solutions
A compound containing a !CHO group
A term used initially to classify benzene and its derivatives. More accurately, it is used to classify any compound that meets the Hückel criteria for aromaticity (Section 21.2A).
One-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent atoms of the same element in a metal. For elements that exist as diatomic units, the atomic radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms in a particular molecule. (8.3)
A reaction in which two species are involved in the rate-determining step.
Streams of electrons that are produced when a high voltage is applied to electrodes in an evacuated tube. (Section 2.2)
Light and other forms of radiant energy.
Atoms or groups on an atom that give a chiral center when one of the groups is replaced by another group. A pair of enantiomers results. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are enantiotopic. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol. Enantiotopic groups have identical chemical shifts in achiral environments but different chemical shifts in chiral environments.
The catalyst system and conditions of temperature and pressure developed by Fritz Haber and coworkers for the formation of NH3 from H2 and N2. (Section 15.2)
A reaction in which a methyl ketone is converted into a carboxylic acid upon treatment with excess base and excess halogen, followed by aqueous acid.
Heat of combustion (DH0 )
Standard heat of combustion is the heat released when one mole of a substance in its standard state (gas, liquid, solid) is oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water.
A functional group in which two acyl groups, RCO! or ArCO!, are bonded to a nitrogen atom
A drawing style inwhich the electrons take center stage.linear polymer (Sect. 27.6): A polymer thathas only a minimal amount of branching or nobranching at all.
A plot of the relative abundance of ions versus their mass-to-charge ratio
A solid whose dimensions range from 1 to 100 nm and whose properties differ from those of a bulk material with the same composition. (Section 12.1)
R (Section 3.3)
From the Latin, rectus, straight, correct; used in the R,S convention to show that the order of priority of groups on a chiral center is clockwise.
A mixture of equal amounts of two enantiomers.
A compound that prevents a radical chain process from either getting started or continuing.
The strain that arises when nonbonded atoms separated by four or more bonds are forced closer to each other than their atomic (contact) radii would allow. Steric strain is also called non-bonded interaction strain, or van der Waals strain.
A synthetictechnique for preparing racemic a-amino acidsfrom aldehydes.
The angle between two groups in a Newman projection, also called the dihedral angle.