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Solutions for Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements

Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 4th Edition

ISBN: 9780321687937

Solutions for Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements

Solutions for Chapter 4
4 5 0 381 Reviews
16
4
Textbook: Introductory Chemistry
Edition: 4
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321687937

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 4. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements includes 118 full step-by-step solutions. Since 118 problems in chapter 4: Atoms and Elements have been answered, more than 95412 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Introductory Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321687937.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • boiling point.

    The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external atmospheric pressure. (11.8)

  • bromonium ion

    A positively charged, bridged intermediate formed during the addition reaction that occurs when an alkene is treated with molecular bromine (Br2).

  • complex ion.

    An ion containing a central metal cation bonded to one or more molecules or ions. (16.10)

  • Cyanohydrin

    A molecule containing an !OH group and a !CN group bonded to the same carbon.

  • Eclipsed conformation

    A conformation about a carboncarbon single bond in which the atoms or groups on one carbon are as close as possible to the atoms or groups on an adjacent carbon.

  • ferrimagnetism

    A form of magnetism in which unpaired electron spins on different-type ions point in opposite directions but do not fully cancel out. (Section 23.1)

  • force

    A push or a pull. (Section 5.1)

  • hard water

    Water that contains appreciable concentrations of Ca2 + and Mg 2 + ; these ions react with soaps to form an insoluble material. (Section 18.4)

  • lipid

    Naturally occurring compoundsthat can be extracted from cells usingnonpolar organic solvents.

  • mass spectrometer

    A device inwhich a compound is first vaporized and convertedinto ions, which are then separated anddetected.

  • methyl shift

    A type of carbocation rearrangement in which a methyl group migrates.

  • nucleus

    The very small, very dense, positively charged portion of an atom; it is composed of protons and neutrons. (Section 2.2)

  • period

    The row of elements that lie in a horizontal row in the periodic table. (Section 2.5)

  • polyether

    A compound containing several ether groups.

  • polypeptide

    A polymer of amino acids that has a molecular weight of less than 10,000. (Section 24.7)

  • Protic solvent

    A solvent that is a hydrogen-bond donor. Common protic solvents are water, low-molecular-weight alcohols, and low-molecular weight carboxylic acids.

  • Sandmeyer reactions

    Reactions that utilize copper salts (CuX) and enable the installation of a halogen or a cyano group on an aromatic ring.

  • sp3 Hybrid orbital

    A hybrid atomic orbital formed by the combination of one s atomic orbital and three 2p atomic orbitals.

  • spin magnetic quantum number 1ms2

    A quantum number associated with the electron spin; it may have values of +12 or -12. (Section 6.7)

  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon

    A hydrocarbon containing one or more carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. The three classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons are alkenes, alkynes, and arenes