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Solutions for Chapter 5: Molecules and Compounds

Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 4th Edition

ISBN: 9780321687937

Solutions for Chapter 5: Molecules and Compounds

Solutions for Chapter 5
4 5 0 305 Reviews
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5
Textbook: Introductory Chemistry
Edition: 4
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321687937

Chapter 5: Molecules and Compounds includes 107 full step-by-step solutions. Since 107 problems in chapter 5: Molecules and Compounds have been answered, more than 95437 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Introductory Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321687937. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 4. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Aromatic compound

    A term used initially to classify benzene and its derivatives. More accurately, it is used to classify any compound that meets the Hückel criteria for aromaticity (Section 21.2A).

  • atomic orbital

    A three-dimensional plot of y2 of a wavefunction. It is a region of space that can accommodate electron density.

  • branched polymer

    A polymer that contains a large number of branches connected to the main chain of the polymer.

  • Carboxylic acid

    A compound containing a carboxyl, !COOH, group.

  • chemical reactions

    Processes in which one or more substances are converted into other substances; also called chemical changes. (Section 1.3)

  • Claisen rearrangement

    A [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement that is observed for allylic vinylic ethers.

  • critical temperature

    The highest temperature at which it is possible to convert the gaseous form of a substance to a liquid. The critical temperature increases with an increase in the magnitude of intermolecular forces. (Section 11.4)

  • decomposition reaction

    A chemical reaction in which a single compound reacts to give two or more products. (Section 3.2)

  • dihydroxylation

    A reaction characterized by the addition of two hydroxyl groups (OH) across an alkene.

  • E2

    A bimolecular b-elimination reaction.

  • electron shell

    A collection of orbitals that have the same value of n. For example, the orbitals with n = 3 (the 3s, 3p, and 3d orbitals) comprise the third shell. (Section 6.5)

  • Fischer esterification

    A process in which a carboxylic acid is converted into an ester when treated with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst.

  • Hydrogen bonding

    The attractive interaction between a hydrogen atom bonded to an atom of high electronegativity (most commonly O or N) and a lone pair of electrons on another atom of high electronegativity (again, most commonly O or N).

  • instantaneous rate

    The reaction rate at a particular time as opposed to the average rate over an interval of time. (Section 14.2)

  • lanthanide contraction

    The gradual decrease in atomic and ionic radii with increasing atomic number among the lanthanide elements, atomic numbers 57 through 70. The decrease arises because of a gradual increase in effective nuclear charge through the lanthanide series. (Section 23.1)

  • microstate

    The state of a system at a particular instant; one of many possible energetically equivalent ways to arrange the components of a system to achieve a particular state. (Section 19.3)

  • polar reaction

    A reaction that involves the participation of ions as reactants, intermediates, or products.

  • radical anion

    An intermediate that has both a negative charge and an unpaired electron.

  • symmetrical ether

    An ether (R!O!R) where both R groups are identical.

  • tosylate

    An excellent leaving group (OTs). transition state (Sect. 6.6): A state through which a reaction passes. On an energy diagram, a transition state corresponds with a local maximum.