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Solutions for Chapter 13: Solutions

Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 4th Edition

ISBN: 9780321687937

Solutions for Chapter 13: Solutions

Solutions for Chapter 13
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Textbook: Introductory Chemistry
Edition: 4
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321687937

Introductory Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321687937. Since 134 problems in chapter 13: Solutions have been answered, more than 95451 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 13: Solutions includes 134 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 4.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • arenium ion

    The positively charged, resonance-stabilized, intermediate of anelectrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Also called a sigma complex.

  • Aromatic amine

    An amine in which nitrogen is bonded to one or more aryl groups.

  • aryl amine

    An amine in which the nitrogen atom is connected directly to an aromatic ring.

  • Aufbau principle.

    As protons are added one by one to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons similarly are added to the atomic orbitals. (7.9)

  • copolymer.

    A polymer containing two or more different monomers. (25.2)

  • core electrons.

    All nonvalence electrons in an atom. (8.2)

  • crystal lattice

    An imaginary network of points on which the repeating motif of a solid may be imagined to be laid down so that the structure of the crystal is obtained. The motif may be a single atom or a group of atoms. Each lattice point represents an identical environment in the crystal. (Section 12.2)

  • crystalline solid (crystal)

    A solid whose internal arrangement of atoms, molecules, or ions possesses a regularly repeating pattern in any direction through the solid. (Section 12.2)

  • Dextrorotatory

    Refers to a substance that rotates the plane of polarized light to the right

  • Disulfide

    A molecule containing an !S!S! group

  • enzymes

    Important biological molecules that catalyze virtually all cellular processes.

  • gray (Gy)

    The SI unit for radiation dose

  • ideal-gas equation

    An equation of state for gases that embodies Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, and Avogadro’s hypothesis in the form PV = nRT. (Section 10.4)

  • inversion of configuration

    During a reaction, when the configuration of a chirality center is changed.

  • kinetic-molecular theory

    A set of assumptions about the nature of gases. These assumptions, when translated into mathematical form, yield the ideal-gas equation. (Section 10.7)

  • Lipid bilayer

    A back-to-back arrangement of phospholipid monolayers, often forming a closed vesicle or membrane.

  • nitrosonium ion

    The NO+ ion, which is formed when NaNO2 is treated with HCl.

  • pressure

    A measure of the force exerted on a unit area. In chemistry, pressure is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm) or torr: 760 torr = 1 atm; in SI units pressure is expressed in pascals (Pa). (Section 10.2)

  • replacement test

    A test for determining the relationship between two protons. The compound is drawn two times, each time replacing one of the protons with deuterium. If the two compounds are identical, the protons are homotopic. If the two compounds are enantiomers, the protons are enantiotopic. If the two compounds are diastereomers, the protons are diastereotopic.

  • steric number

    The total of (single bonds + lone pairs) for an atom in a compound.