- Unit 4.1: Balance the following chemical equations: a. Zn(s) 1 HCl(aq) ZnCl2(...
- Unit 4.2: For each of the four equations in Exercise 1, name the type of reac...
- Unit 4.3: Using the same equations you balanced in Exercise 1, suppose that y...
- Unit 4.4: Write a balanced chemical equation for these reactions: a. Calcium ...
- Unit 4.5: What is a neutralization reaction?
- Unit 4.6: Write out the complete and net ionic equations for reactions betwee...
- Unit 4.7: Does a precipitate form in any of the reactions from Exercise 6? Ci...
- Unit 4.8: Describe the steps you would follow to make a 1.0 M solution of sil...
- Unit 4.9: How many grams of solute are dissolved in a 500.0 mL sample of 0.50...
- Unit 4.10: What is the pH of a solution with [H1] 5 2.0 3 1028 ? What is the [...
- Unit 4.11: Th is reaction is completed in a factory to create potassium phosph...
- Unit 4.12: Th e reaction shown here is completed by a chemical company to crea...
- Unit 4.13: What is the pH of a 0.001 M NaOH solution? (A) 23 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 11
- Unit 4.14: Which of the following is a balanced neutralization reaction? (A) 2...
- Unit 4.15: If 15.0 mL of 0.50 M HCl solution is required to neutralize 34.1 mL...
- Unit 4.16: Which solid would be best to add to a solution of Cu(NO3)2 in order...
- Unit 4.17: The reaction to form ammonia gas, NH3, is shown in the chemical equ...
- Unit 4.18: Consider the reaction below. What mass of sodium chloride will be p...
- Unit 4.19: Consider the reaction below. How many grams of Zn3(PO4)2 can be mad...
- Unit 4.20: Consider the balanced chemical equation below. Which substance is t...
Solutions for Chapter Unit 4: Toxins
Full solutions for Living by Chemistry | 2nd Edition
A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value. (Section 1.5)
antibonding molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electron density is concentrated outside the region between the two nuclei of bonded atoms. Such orbitals, designated as s* or p*, are less stable (of higher energy) than bonding molecular orbitals. (Section 9.7)
A solvent that cannot serve as a hydrogen-bond donor; nowhere in the molecule is there a hydrogen bonded to an atom of high electronegativity. Common aprotic solvents are dichloromethane, diethyl ether, and dimethyl sulfoxide
A group that can be readily installed and uninstalled. Used for regiochemical control during synthesis.
A polyhydroxyaldehyde, a polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis.
A polydentate ligand that is capable of occupying two or more sites in the coordination sphere. (Section 23.3)
A pericyclic process in which a conjugated polyene undergoes cyclization. In the process, one p bond is converted into a s bond, while the remaining p bonds all change their location. The newly formed s bond joins the ends of the original p system,thereby creating a ring.
In the VSEPR model, a region about a central atom in which an electron pair is concentrated. (Section 9.2)
Two mirror-image molecules of a chiral substance. The enantiomers are nonsuperimposable. (Section 23.4)
An anion derived by loss of a hydrogen from a carbon alpha to a carbonyl group; the anion of an enol.
exchange (metathesis) reaction
A reaction between compounds that when written as a molecular equation appears to involve the exchange of ions between the two reactants. (Section 4.2)
See voltaic cell. (Section 20.3)
The lowest energy state of a system.
Members of group 7A in the periodic table. (Section 7.8)
The reaction rate at a particular time as opposed to the average rate over an interval of time. (Section 14.2)
Structural isomers of coordination compounds in which a ligand differs in its mode of attachment to a metal ion. (Section 23.4)
nematic liquid crystalline phase
A liquid crystal in which the molecules are aligned in the same general direction, along their long axes, but in which the ends of the molecules are not aligned. (Section 11.7)
A variety of enzymes that selectively hydrolyze specific peptide bonds.
A large molecule of high molecular mass, formed by the joining together, or polymerization, of a large number of molecules of low molecular mass. The individual molecules forming the polymer are called monomers. (Sections 12.1 and 12.8)
A rule stating that the major product of a b-elimination reaction is the most stable alkene; that is, it is the alkene with the greatest number of substituents on the carboncarbon double bond