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Solutions for Chapter 7.6: Bicyclic and Polycyclic comPounds
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 6th Edition
A hydrogen on a carbon alpha to a carbonyl group.
A format for naming primary amines containing a complex alkyl group.
alpha (a) rays.
Helium ions with a positive charge of 12. (2.2)
A species in which a carbon atom has only six electrons in its valence shell and bears a positive charge
The C “O double bond, a characteristic feature of several organic functional groups, such as ketones and aldehydes. (Section 24.4)
The rules used in naming substances. (Section 2.8)
A drawing style in which none of the bonds are drawn. Groups of atoms are clustered together when possible. For example, isopropanol has two CH3 groups, both of which are connected to the central carbon atom, shown like this: (CH3)2CHOH.
coordinate covalent bond.
A bond in which the pair of electrons is supplied by one of the two bonded atoms; also called a dative bond. (9.9)
free energy (Gibbs free energy, G)
A thermodynamic state function that gives a criterion for spontaneous change in terms of enthalpy and entropy: G = H - TS. (Section 19.5)
A compound with hydroxyl (!OH) groups on adjacent carbons.
Ground-state electron confi guration
The lowest-energy electron confi guration for an atom or molecule.
A tentative explanation of a series of observations or of a natural law. (Section 1.3)
Experimental conditions under which the composition of the product mixture is determined by the relative rates of formation of each product.
In a BaeyerVilliger oxidation, the migration rates of different groups, which determine the regiochemical outcome of the reaction.
molal boiling-point-elevation constant (Kb)
A constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the increase in boiling point as a function of solution molality: ?Tb = Kbm. (Section 13.5)
The conversion of a substance from one state of matter to another. The phase changes we consider are melting and freezing 1solid ? liquid2, sublimation and deposition, and vaporization and condensation 1liquid ? gas2. (Section 11.4)
Having specifi c values for energy and momentum
A polymer, comprised of more than one kind of repeating unit, in which there is a random distribution of repeating units.
The general process of advancing scientific knowledge by making experimental observations and by formulating hypotheses, theories, and laws. (Section 1.3)
A reaction in which only one species is involved in the rate-determining step