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Solutions for Chapter 3: Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

Full solutions for World Of Chemistry | 2nd Edition

ISBN: 9780618562763

Solutions for Chapter 3: Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: World Of Chemistry, edition: 2. World Of Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780618562763. Since 10 problems in chapter 3: Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions have been answered, more than 2760 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 3: Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions includes 10 full step-by-step solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • aldehydes.

    Compounds with a carbonyl functional group and the general formula RCHO, where R is an H atom, an alkyl, or an aromatic group. (24.4)

  • annulenes

    Compounds consisting of a single ring containing a fully conjugated p system. Benzene is [6]annulene.

  • azo coupling

    An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction in which an aryldiazonium salt reacts with an activated aromatic ring.

  • Cis, trans isomers

    Stereoisomers that have the same connectivity but a different arrangement of their atoms in space as a result of the presence of either a ring or a carboncarbon double bond.

  • elastomers

    Polymers that return to their original shape after being stretched.

  • fossil fuels

    Coal, oil, and natural gas, which are presently our major sources of energy. (Section 5.8)

  • gas

    Matter that has no fixed volume or shape; it conforms to the volume and shape of its container. (Section 1.2)

  • Ground-state electron confi guration

    The lowest-energy electron confi guration for an atom or molecule.

  • Histone

    A protein, particularly rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine, that is found associated with DNA molecules

  • Hydroxyl group

    An !OH group

  • hyperconjugation

    An effect that explains why alkyl groups stabilize a carbocation.

  • Line-angle formula

    An abbreviated way to draw structural formulas in which vertices and line endings represent carbons

  • locant

    In nomenclature, a numberused to identify the location of a substituent.

  • Nitrogen rule

    A rule stating that the molecular ion of a compound with an odd number of nitrogen atoms has an odd m/z ratio; if zero or an even number of nitrogen atoms, the molecular ion has an even m/z ratio

  • octet rule

    A rule stating that bonded atoms tend to possess or share a total of eight valence-shell electrons. (Section 8.1)

  • parent ion

    In mass spectrometry,the ion that is generated when the compound is ionized.

  • Pro-R-hydrogen

    Replacing this hydrogen by deuterium gives a chiral center with an R confi guration

  • pure substance

    Matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties. (Section 1.2)

  • rearrangement

    One of the four arrow-pushing patterns for ionic reactions.

  • Sulfi de

    The sulfur analog of an ether; a molecule containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. Sulfi des are also called thioethers