 31.1COQ: The Sun is powered by(a) nuclear alpha decay.(b) nuclear beta decay...
 31.1MCQ : In a nuclear reaction, which of the following is not conserved?(a) ...
 31.1P: (I) Natural aluminum is all If it absorbs a neutron, what does it b...
 31.1Q: Fill in the missing particles or nuclei: where d stands for deuterium.
 31.1SL: Referring to Section 31–2, (a) state three problems that must be ov...
 31.2MCQ: Fission fragments are typically(a) ?+ emitters.(b) ? emitters.(c) ...
 31.2P: (I) Determine whether the reaction requires a threshold energy, and...
 31.2Q: When is bombarded by deuterons an particle is emitted. What is the ...
 31.2SL: Referring to Section 31–3, (a) why can small nuclei combine to form...
 31.3MCQ: Rather than having a maximum at about as shown in Fig. 31–12, suppo...
 31.3P: Is the reaction possible with slow neutrons? Explain.
 31.3Q: Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reacti...
 31.3SL: Deuterium makes up 0.0115% of natural hydrogen on average. Make a r...
 31.4P: (a) Complete the following nuclear reaction, (b) What is the Qvalue?
 31.4Q: What is the Qvalue for radioactive decay reactions?(a) Q < 0 (b) Q...
 31.4SL: The energy output of massive stars is believed to be due to the car...
 31.5MCQ: Why is a moderator needed in a normal uranium fission reactor?(a) T...
 31.5P: The reaction requires an input of energy equal to 2.438 MeV. What i...
 31.5Q: The energy from nuclear fission appears in the form of thermal ener...
 31.5SL: Consider the effort by humans to harness nuclear fusion as a viable...
 31.6MCQ: What is the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion?(...
 31.6P: (II) (a) Can the reaction occur if the bombarding particles have 18...
 31.6Q: (a) If released only 1.5 neutrons per fission on average (instead o...
 31.6SL: 1. Explain how each of the following can cause damage to materials:...
 31.7MCQ: A primary difficulty in energy production by fusion is(a) the scarc...
 31.7P: (II) (a) Can the reaction occur if the incident proton has kinetic ...
 31.7Q: Why can’t uranium be enriched by chemical means?
 31.8MCQ: If two hydrogen nuclei, fuse together and form a helium nucleus of ...
 31.8P: (II) In the reaction the incident particles have 9.85 MeV of kineti...
 31.8Q: How can a neutron, with practically no kinetic energy, excite a nuc...
 31.9MCQ: Which radiation induces the most biological damage for a given amou...
 31.9P: (II) Calculate the Qvalue for the “capture” reaction
 31.9Q: Why would a porous block of uranium be more likely to explode if ke...
 31.10MCQ: Which would produce the most energy in a single reaction?(a) The fi...
 31.10P: (II) Calculate the total kinetic energy of the products of the Reac...
 31.10Q: A reactor that uses highly enriched uranium can use ordinary water ...
 31.11MCQ: The fuel necessary for fusionproduced energy could be derived from...
 31.11P: (II) Radioactive is produced in the atmosphere when a neutron is ab...
 31.11Q: Why must the fission process release neutrons if it is to be useful?
 31.12MCQ: Which of the following is true?(a) Any amount of radiation is harmf...
 31.12P: (II) An example of a stripping nuclear reaction is (a) What is X, t...
 31.12Q: Why are neutrons released in a fission reaction?
 31.13MCQ: Which of the following would reduce the cell damage due to radiatio...
 31.13P: (II) An example of a pickup nuclear reaction is (a) Why is it call...
 31.13Q: What is the reason for the “secondary system” in a nuclear reactor,...
 31.14MCQ: If the same dose of each type of radiation was provided over the sa...
 31.14P: (II) Does the reaction require energy, or does it release energy? H...
 31.14Q: What is the basic difference between fission and fusion?
 31.15MCQ: Which has the smaller critical mass? (c) Both the same.
 31.15P: (II) Calculate the energy released (or energy input required) for t...
 31.15Q: Discuss the relative merits and disadvantages, including pollution ...
 31.16P: (I) What is the energy released in the fission reaction of Eq. 31–4...
 31.16Q: Why do gamma particles penetrate matter more easily than beta parti...
 31.17P: (I) Calculate the energy released in the fission reaction Use Appen...
 31.17Q: Light energy emitted by the Sun and stars comes from the fusion pro...
 31.18P: (I) How many fissions take place per second in a 240MW reactor? As...
 31.18Q: How do stars, and our Sun, maintain confinement of the plasma for f...
 31.19P: (I) The energy produced by a fission reactor is about 200 MeV per f...
 31.19Q: People who work around metals that emit alpha particles are trained...
 31.20P: (II) Suppose that the average electric power consumption, day and n...
 31.20Q: What is the difference between absorbed dose and effective dose? Wh...
 31.21P: (II) Consider the fission reaction (a) How many neutrons are produc...
 31.21Q: Radiation is sometimes used to sterilize medical supplies and even ...
 31.22P: (II) How much mass of is required to produce the same amount of ene...
 31.22Q: How might radioactive tracers be used to find a leak in a pipe?
 31.23P: (II) What initial mass of is required to operate a 950MW reactor f...
 31.24P: (II) If a 1.0MeV neutron emitted in a fission reaction loses oneh...
 31.26P: (III) Suppose that the neutron multiplication factor is1.0004. If t...
 31.25P: (II) Assuming a fission of into two roughly equal fragments, estima...
 31.27P: (I) What is the average kinetic energy of protons at the center of ...
 31.28P: (II) Show that the energy released in the fusion reaction is 17.59 MeV
 31.29P: (II) Show that the energy released when two deuterium nuclei fuse t...
 31.30P: (II) Verify the Qvalue stated for each of the reactions of Eqs. 31...
 31.31EA: Determine the resulting nucleus in the reaction
 31.31EB: In the fission reaction neutrons, how many neutrons are produced?
 31.31EC: A nuclearpowered submarine needs 6000kW input power. How many fis...
 31.31ED: Return to the ChapterOpening Question, page 885, and answer it aga...
 31.31EE: If the Sun is generating a constant amount of energy via fusion, th...
 31.31P: (II) (a) Calculate the energy release per gram of fuel for the reac...
 31.32P: (II) How much energy is released when absorbs a slow neutron and be...
 31.33P: (II) If a typical house requires 960 W of electric power on average...
 31.34P: (II) If is struck by a slow neutron, it can form and another nucleu...
 31.35P: (II) Suppose a fusion reactor ran on “d–d” reactions, Eqs. 31–8a an...
 31.36P: (III) Show that the energies carried off by the nucleus and the neu...
 31.37P: (III) How much energy (J) is contained in 1.00 kg of water if its n...
 31.38P: (III) (a) Give the ratio of the energy needed for the first reactio...
 31.39P: (I) 350 rads of ?particle radiation is equivalent to how many rads...
 31.40P: (I) A dose of 4.0 Sv of rays in a short period would be lethal to a...
 31.41P: (I) How many rads of slow neutrons will do as much biological damag...
 31.42P: (II) How much energy is deposited in the body of a 65kg adult expo...
 31.43P: (II) A cancer patient is undergoing radiation therapy in which prot...
 31.44P: (II) is injected into an animal for tracer studies. If a Geiger cou...
 31.45P: (II) About 35 eV is required to produce one ion pair in air. Show t...
 31.46P: (II) A 1.6mCi source of emitter, is implanted in a tumor where it ...
 31.47P: (II) What is the mass of a source?
 31.48P: (II) emits 122keV rays. If a 65kg person swallowed of what would ...
 31.49P: (II) Ionizing radiation can be used on meat products to reduce the ...
 31.50P: (III) Huge amounts of radioactive were released in the accident at ...
 31.51P: (III) Assume a liter of milk typically has an activity of 2000 pCi ...
 31.52P: (III) Radon gas, is considered a serious health hazard (see discuss...
 31.53P: (II) Calculate the wavelength of photons needed to produce NMR tran...
 31.54GP: Consider a system of nuclear power plants that produce 2100MW. (a) ...
 31.55GP: J. Chadwick discovered the neutron by bombarding with the popular p...
 31.56GP: Fusion temperatures are often given in keV. Determine the conversio...
 31.57GP: One means of enriching uranium is by diffusion of the gas UF6. Calc...
 31.58GP: (a) What mass of was actually fissioned in the first atomic bomb, w...
 31.59GP: The average yearly background radiation in a certain town consists ...
 31.60GP: A shielded ray source yields a dose rate of 0.048 rad/h at a dista...
 31.61GP: Radon gas, is formed by ? decay. (a) Write the decay equation. (b) ...
 31.62GP: In the net reaction, Eq. 31–7, for the proton–proton chain in the S...
 31.63GP: Energy reaches Earth from the Sun at a rate of about 1300 W/m2.Calc...
 31.64GP:
 31.65GP: Estimate how much total energy would be released via fission if 2.0...
 31.66GP: Some stars, in a later stage of evolution, may begin to fuse two nu...
 31.67GP: An average adult body contains about which comes from food. (a) How...
 31.68GP: When the nuclear reactor accident occurred at Chernobyl in 1986, 2....
 31.69GP: A star with a large helium abundance can burn helium in the reactio...
 31.70GP: A source is used for 1.4 hours by a 62kg worker. Radioactive decay...
 31.71GP: Suppose a future fusion reactor would be able to put out 1000 MW of...
 31.72GP: If a 65kg power plant worker has been exposed to the maximum slow...
 31.73GP: Consider the fission reaction (a) What is X? (b) If this were part ...
 31.74GP: A large amount of was released during the Chernobyl nuclear reactor...
 31.75GP: Three radioactive sources have the same activity, 35 mCi. Source A ...
 31.76GP: A 55kg patient is to be given a medical test involving the ingesti...
 31.31.1: Natural aluminum is all If it absorbs a neutron, what does it becom...
 31.1: Natural aluminum is all If it absorbs a neutron, what does it becom...
 31.31.2: Determine whether the reaction requires a threshold energy, and why
 31.2: Determine whether the reaction requires a threshold energy, and why
 31.31.3: Is the reaction possible with slow neutrons? Explain
 31.3: Is the reaction possible with slow neutrons? Explain
 31.31.4: (a) Complete the following nuclear reaction, (b) What is the Qvalue?
 31.4: (a) Complete the following nuclear reaction, (b) What is the Qvalue?
 31.31.5: The reaction requires an input of energy equal to 2.438 MeV. What i...
 31.5: The reaction requires an input of energy equal to 2.438 MeV. What i...
 31.31.6: (a) Can the reaction occur if the bombarding particles have 18.00 M...
 31.6: (a) Can the reaction occur if the bombarding particles have 18.00 M...
 31.31.7: (a) Can the reaction occur if the incident proton has (b) If so, wh...
 31.7: (a) Can the reaction occur if the incident proton has (b) If so, wh...
 31.31.8: In the reaction the incident particles have 9.85 MeV of kinetic ene...
 31.8: In the reaction the incident particles have 9.85 MeV of kinetic ene...
 31.31.9: Calculate the Qvalue for the capture reaction
 31.9: Calculate the Qvalue for the capture reaction
 31.31.10: Calculate the total kinetic energy of the products of the reaction ...
 31.10: Calculate the total kinetic energy of the products of the reaction ...
 31.31.11: Radioactive is produced in the atmosphere when a neutron is absorbe...
 31.11: Radioactive is produced in the atmosphere when a neutron is absorbe...
 31.31.12: An example of a stripping nuclear reaction is (a) What is X, the re...
 31.12: An example of a stripping nuclear reaction is (a) What is X, the re...
 31.31.13: An example of a pickup nuclear reaction is (a) Why is it called a ...
 31.13: An example of a pickup nuclear reaction is (a) Why is it called a ...
 31.31.14: Does the reaction require energy, or does it release energy? How mu...
 31.14: Does the reaction require energy, or does it release energy? How mu...
 31.31.15: Calculate the energy released (or energy input required) for the re...
 31.15: Calculate the energy released (or energy input required) for the re...
 31.31.16: What is the energy released in the fission reaction of Eq. 314? (Th...
 31.16: What is the energy released in the fission reaction of Eq. 314? (Th...
 31.31.17: Calculate the energy released in the fission reaction Use Appendix ...
 31.17: Calculate the energy released in the fission reaction Use Appendix ...
 31.31.18: How many fissions take place per second in a 240MW reactor? Assume...
 31.18: How many fissions take place per second in a 240MW reactor? Assume...
 31.31.19: The energy produced by a fission reactor is about 200 MeV per fissi...
 31.19: The energy produced by a fission reactor is about 200 MeV per fissi...
 31.31.20: Suppose that the average electric power consumption, day and night,...
 31.20: Suppose that the average electric power consumption, day and night,...
 31.31.21: Consider the fission reaction (a) How many neutrons are produced in...
 31.21: Consider the fission reaction (a) How many neutrons are produced in...
 31.31.22: How much mass of is required to produce the same amount of energy a...
 31.22: How much mass of is required to produce the same amount of energy a...
 31.31.23: What initial mass of is required to operate a 950MW reactor for 1 ...
 31.23: What initial mass of is required to operate a 950MW reactor for 1 ...
 31.31.24: If a 1.0MeV neutron emitted in a fission reaction loses onehalf o...
 31.24: If a 1.0MeV neutron emitted in a fission reaction loses onehalf o...
 31.31.25: Assuming a fission of into two roughly equal fragments, estimate th...
 31.25: Assuming a fission of into two roughly equal fragments, estimate th...
 31.31.26: Suppose that the neutron multiplication factor is 1.0004. If the av...
 31.26: Suppose that the neutron multiplication factor is 1.0004. If the av...
 31.31.27: What is the average kinetic energy of protons at the center of a st...
 31.27: What is the average kinetic energy of protons at the center of a st...
 31.31.28: Show that the energy released in the fusion reaction is 17.59 MeV.
 31.28: Show that the energy released in the fusion reaction is 17.59 MeV.
 31.31.29: Show that the energy released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to for...
 31.29: Show that the energy released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to for...
 31.31.30: Verify the Qvalue stated for each of the reactions of Eqs. 316. [H...
 31.30: Verify the Qvalue stated for each of the reactions of Eqs. 316. [H...
 31.31.31: (a) Calculate the energy release per gram of fuel for the reactions...
 31.31: (a) Calculate the energy release per gram of fuel for the reactions...
 31.31.32: How much energy is released when absorbs a slow neutron and becomes
 31.32: How much energy is released when absorbs a slow neutron and becomes
 31.31.33: If a typical house requires 960 W of electric power on average, wha...
 31.33: If a typical house requires 960 W of electric power on average, wha...
 31.31.34: If is struck by a slow neutron, it can form and another nucleus. (a...
 31.34: If is struck by a slow neutron, it can form and another nucleus. (a...
 31.35: Suppose a fusion reactor ran on dd reactions, Eqs. 318a and b in eq...
 31.31.35: Suppose a fusion reactor ran on dd reactions, Eqs. 318a and b in eq...
 31.36: Show that the energies carried off by the nucleus and the neutron f...
 31.31.36: Show that the energies carried off by the nucleus and the neutron f...
 31.37: How much energy (J) is contained in 1.00 kg of water if its natural...
 31.31.37: How much energy (J) is contained in 1.00 kg of water if its natural...
 31.38: (a) Give the ratio of the energy needed for the first reaction of t...
 31.31.38: (a) Give the ratio of the energy needed for the first reaction of t...
 31.39: 350 rads of particle radiation is equivalent to how many rads of X...
 31.31.39: 350 rads of particle radiation is equivalent to how many rads of X...
 31.40: A dose of 4.0 Sv of rays in a short period would be lethal to about...
 31.31.40: A dose of 4.0 Sv of rays in a short period would be lethal to about...
 31.41: How many rads of slow neutrons will do as much biological damage as...
 31.31.41: How many rads of slow neutrons will do as much biological damage as...
 31.42: How much energy is deposited in the body of a 65kg adult exposed t...
 31.31.42: How much energy is deposited in the body of a 65kg adult exposed t...
 31.43: A cancer patient is undergoing radiation therapy in which protons w...
 31.31.43: A cancer patient is undergoing radiation therapy in which protons w...
 31.44: A 0.035 sample of is injected into an animal for tracer studies. I...
 31.31.44: A 0.035 sample of is injected into an animal for tracer studies. I...
 31.45: About 35 eV is required to produce one ion pair in air. Show that t...
 31.31.45: About 35 eV is required to produce one ion pair in air. Show that t...
 31.46: A 1.6mCi source of (in ), a emitter, is implanted in a tumor where...
 31.31.46: A 1.6mCi source of (in ), a emitter, is implanted in a tumor where...
 31.47: What is the mass of a 2.50 source?
 31.31.47: What is the mass of a 2.50 source?
 31.48: If a 65kg person swallowed of what would be the dose rate averaged...
 31.31.48: If a 65kg person swallowed of what would be the dose rate averaged...
 31.49: Ionizing radiation can be used on meat products to reduce the level...
 31.31.49: Ionizing radiation can be used on meat products to reduce the level...
 31.50: Huge amounts of radioactive were released in the accident at Cherno...
 31.31.50: Huge amounts of radioactive were released in the accident at Cherno...
 31.51: Assume a liter of milk typically has an activity of 2000 pCi due to...
 31.31.51: Assume a liter of milk typically has an activity of 2000 pCi due to...
 31.52: Radon gas, is considered a serious health hazard (see discussion in...
 31.31.52: Radon gas, is considered a serious health hazard (see discussion in...
 31.53: Calculate the wavelength of photons needed to produce NMR transitio...
 31.31.53: Calculate the wavelength of photons needed to produce NMR transitio...
 31.54: Consider a system of nuclear power plants that produce 2100 MW. (a)...
 31.31.54: Consider a system of nuclear power plants that produce 2100 MW. (a)...
 31.55: J. Chadwick discovered the neutron by bombarding with the popular p...
 31.31.55: J. Chadwick discovered the neutron by bombarding with the popular p...
 31.56: Fusion temperatures are often given in keV. Determine the conversio...
 31.31.56: Fusion temperatures are often given in keV. Determine the conversio...
 31.57: One means of enriching uranium is by diffusion of the gas Calculate...
 31.31.57: One means of enriching uranium is by diffusion of the gas Calculate...
 31.58: . (a) What mass of was actually fissioned in the first atomic bomb,...
 31.31.58: . (a) What mass of was actually fissioned in the first atomic bomb,...
 31.59: The average yearly background radiation in a certain town consists ...
 31.31.59: The average yearly background radiation in a certain town consists ...
 31.60: A shielded ray source yields a dose rate of at a distance of 1.0 m...
 31.31.60: A shielded ray source yields a dose rate of at a distance of 1.0 m...
 31.61: Radon gas, is formed by decay. (a) Write the decay equation. (b) Ig...
 31.31.61: Radon gas, is formed by decay. (a) Write the decay equation. (b) Ig...
 31.62: In the net reaction, Eq. 317, for the protonproton chain in the Sun...
 31.31.62: In the net reaction, Eq. 317, for the protonproton chain in the Sun...
 31.63: Energy reaches Earth from the Sun at a rate of about Calculate (a) ...
 31.31.63: Energy reaches Earth from the Sun at a rate of about Calculate (a) ...
 31.64: Estimate how many solar neutrinos pass through a ceiling of a room,...
 31.31.64: Estimate how many solar neutrinos pass through a ceiling of a room,...
 31.65: Estimate how much total energy would be released via fission if 2.0...
 31.31.65: Estimate how much total energy would be released via fission if 2.0...
 31.66: Some stars, in a later stage of evolution, may begin to fuse two nu...
 31.31.66: Some stars, in a later stage of evolution, may begin to fuse two nu...
 31.67: An average adult body contains about of which comes from food. (a) ...
 31.31.67: An average adult body contains about of which comes from food. (a) ...
 31.68: When the nuclear reactor accident occurred at Chernobyl in 1986, we...
 31.31.68: When the nuclear reactor accident occurred at Chernobyl in 1986, we...
 31.69: A star with a large helium abundance can burn helium in the reactio...
 31.31.69: A star with a large helium abundance can burn helium in the reactio...
 31.70: A source is used for 1.4 hours by a 62kg worker. Radioactive decay...
 31.31.70: A source is used for 1.4 hours by a 62kg worker. Radioactive decay...
 31.71: Suppose a future fusion reactor would be able to put out 1000 MW of...
 31.31.71: Suppose a future fusion reactor would be able to put out 1000 MW of...
 31.72: If a 65kg power plant worker has been exposed to the maximum slow...
 31.31.72: If a 65kg power plant worker has been exposed to the maximum slow...
 31.73: Consider the fission reaction (a) What is X? (b) If this were part ...
 31.31.73: Consider the fission reaction (a) What is X? (b) If this were part ...
 31.74: A large amount of was released during the Chernobyl nuclear reactor...
 31.31.74: A large amount of was released during the Chernobyl nuclear reactor...
 31.75: Three radioactive sources have the same activity, 35 mCi. Source A ...
 31.31.75: Three radioactive sources have the same activity, 35 mCi. Source A ...
 31.76: A 55kg patient is to be given a medical test involving the ingesti...
 31.31.76: A 55kg patient is to be given a medical test involving the ingesti...
Solutions for Chapter 31: Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements
Full solutions for Physics: Principles with Applications  7th Edition
ISBN: 9780321625922
Solutions for Chapter 31: Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements
Get Full SolutionsThis textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physics: Principles with Applications, edition: 7. Physics: Principles with Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321625922. Since 276 problems in chapter 31: Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements have been answered, more than 213869 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Chapter 31: Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements includes 276 full stepbystep solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

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