- 31.31.1: People have manipulated plants since prehistoric times. Humans shar...
- 31.31.2: The two major groups of angiosperms are the monocots and the eudico...
- 31.31.3: A typical plant body contains three basic organs: roots, stems, and...
- 31.31.4: Many plants have modified roots, stems, and leaves. In addition to ...
- 31.31.5: Three tissue systems make up the plant body. Roots, stems, and leav...
- 31.31.6: Plant cells are diverse in structure and function. The major types ...
- 31.31.7: Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots.Meristems, areas of unspe...
- 31.31.8: Secondary growth increases the diameter of woody plants. An increas...
- 31.31.9: The flower is the organ of sexual reproduction in angiosperms. The ...
- 31.31.10: The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization. H...
- 31.31.11: The ovule develops into a seed. After fertilization, the ovule beco...
- 31.31.12: The ovary develops into a fruit. Fruits help protect and disperse s...
- 31.31.13: Seed germination continues the life cycle. A seed starts to germina...
- 31.31.14: Asexual reproduction produces plant clones. Asexual reproduction ca...
- 31.31.15: Evolutionary adaptations help some plants to live very long lives. ...
- 31.1: Create a diagram that shows the relationships between the following...
- 31.2: Which of the following is closest to the center of a woody stem? (E...
- 31.3: A pea pod is formed from ______. A pea inside the pod is formed fro...
- 31.4: While walking in the woods, you encounter an unfamiliar nonwoody fl...
- 31.5: In angiosperms, each pollen grain produces two sperm. What do these...
- 31.6: Matching Attracts pollinator
- 31.7: Matching Develops into seed
- 31.8: Matching Protects flower before it opens
- 31.9: Matching Produces sperm 1
- 31.10: Matching Produces pollen 1
- 31.11: Matching Houses ovules 1
- 31.12: How does a fruit develop from a flower? 1
- 31.13: Name two kinds of asexual reproduction. Explain two advantages of a...
- 31.14: What part of a plant are you eating when you consume each of the fo...
- 31.15: Plant scientists are looking for the wild ancestors of potatoes, co...
Solutions for Chapter 31: Plant Structure, Growth, and Reproduction
Full solutions for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections | 7th Edition
Altitude (of the Sun)
The angle of the Sun above the horizon.
The level below which a stream cannot erode.
Big bang theory
The theory that proposes that the universe originated as a single mass, which subsequently exploded.
The transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance. It can take place only in fluids.
A short channel segment created when a river erodes through the narrow neck of land between meanders.
The condition that exists when the distribution of winds within a given area results in a net horizontal outflow of air from the region. In divergence at lower levels the resulting deficit is compensated for by a downward movement of air from aloft; hence, areas of divergent winds are unfavorable to cloud formation and precipitation.
A coast where land that was formerly below sea level has been exposed either because of crustal uplift or a drop in sea level or both.
The flat, low-lying portion of a stream valley subject to periodic inundation.
A local wind blowing from land toward the water during the night in coastal areas.
The number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom.
The escape of gases that had been dissolved in magma.
An igneous texture consisting of large crystals embedded in a matrix of much smaller crystals.
The minerals that make up most of the rocks of Earth’s crust.
An arch formed by wave erosion when caves on opposite sides of a headland unite.
A fault along which the movement is horizontal.
The condition of being more highly concentrated than is normally possible under given temperature and pressure conditions. When describing humidity, it refers to a relative humidity that is greater than 100 percent.
Wind-generated waves that have moved into an area of weaker winds or calm.
The study of the large-scale processes that collectively deform Earth’s crust.
Tropical wet and dry
A climate that is transitional between the wet tropics and the subtropical steppes.
Found almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere or at high altitudes in many mountainous regions. A treeless climatic realm of sedges, grasses, mosses, and lichens that is dominated by a long, bitterly cold winter.