Solutions for Chapter 9: Decision Theory
Full solutions for Mathematical Statistics with Applications  8th Edition
ISBN: 9780321807090
Solutions for Chapter 9: Decision Theory
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Addition rule
A formula used to determine the probability of the union of two (or more) events from the probabilities of the events and their intersection(s).

Attribute
A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.

Bias
An effect that systematically distorts a statistical result or estimate, preventing it from representing the true quantity of interest.

Causal variable
When y fx = ( ) and y is considered to be caused by x, x is sometimes called a causal variable

Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.

Coeficient of determination
See R 2 .

Comparative experiment
An experiment in which the treatments (experimental conditions) that are to be studied are included in the experiment. The data from the experiment are used to evaluate the treatments.

Conidence level
Another term for the conidence coeficient.

Continuous uniform random variable
A continuous random variable with range of a inite interval and a constant probability density function.

Contour plot
A twodimensional graphic used for a bivariate probability density function that displays curves for which the probability density function is constant.

Control chart
A graphical display used to monitor a process. It usually consists of a horizontal center line corresponding to the incontrol value of the parameter that is being monitored and lower and upper control limits. The control limits are determined by statistical criteria and are not arbitrary, nor are they related to speciication limits. If sample points fall within the control limits, the process is said to be incontrol, or free from assignable causes. Points beyond the control limits indicate an outofcontrol process; that is, assignable causes are likely present. This signals the need to ind and remove the assignable causes.

Defect concentration diagram
A quality tool that graphically shows the location of defects on a part or in a process.

Error sum of squares
In analysis of variance, this is the portion of total variability that is due to the random component in the data. It is usually based on replication of observations at certain treatment combinations in the experiment. It is sometimes called the residual sum of squares, although this is really a better term to use only when the sum of squares is based on the remnants of a modelitting process and not on replication.

Error variance
The variance of an error term or component in a model.

Experiment
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study

F distribution.
The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chisquare random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

Forward selection
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.

Fraction defective
In statistical quality control, that portion of a number of units or the output of a process that is defective.

Fraction defective control chart
See P chart

Generating function
A function that is used to determine properties of the probability distribution of a random variable. See Momentgenerating function