 23.1: Histogram Table 22 is a frequency distribution summarizing the IQ s...
 23.2: Voluntary Response Sample The histogram in Figure 22 on page 55 is ...
 23.3: Small Data NASA provides these duration times (in minutes) of all f...
 23.4: Normal Distribution When it refers to a normal distribution, does t...
 23.5: Interpreting a Histogram. In Exercises 58, answer the questions by ...
 23.6: Interpreting a Histogram. In Exercises 58, answer the questions by ...
 23.7: Interpreting a Histogram. In Exercises 58, answer the questions by ...
 23.8: Interpreting a Histogram. In Exercises 58, answer the questions by ...
 23.9: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.10: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.11: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.12: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.13: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.14: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.15: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.16: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.17: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.18: Constructing Histograms. In Exercises 918, construct the histograms...
 23.19: BacktoBack Relative Frequency Histograms When using histograms to c...
 23.20: Interpreting a Histogram Refer to the histogram given for Exercises...
Solutions for Chapter 23: Histograms
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics  12th Edition
ISBN: 9780321836960
Solutions for Chapter 23: Histograms
Get Full SolutionsThis expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Statistics, edition: 12. Elementary Statistics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321836960. Since 20 problems in chapter 23: Histograms have been answered, more than 197470 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Chapter 23: Histograms includes 20 full stepbystep solutions.

Asymptotic relative eficiency (ARE)
Used to compare hypothesis tests. The ARE of one test relative to another is the limiting ratio of the sample sizes necessary to obtain identical error probabilities for the two procedures.

Attribute
A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.

Bivariate normal distribution
The joint distribution of two normal random variables

C chart
An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defectsperunit or U chart.

Categorical data
Data consisting of counts or observations that can be classiied into categories. The categories may be descriptive.

Central tendency
The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.

Chisquare test
Any test of signiicance based on the chisquare distribution. The most common chisquare tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data

Continuous distribution
A probability distribution for a continuous random variable.

Control limits
See Control chart.

Correlation
In the most general usage, a measure of the interdependence among data. The concept may include more than two variables. The term is most commonly used in a narrow sense to express the relationship between quantitative variables or ranks.

Critical value(s)
The value of a statistic corresponding to a stated signiicance level as determined from the sampling distribution. For example, if PZ z PZ ( )( .) . ? =? = 0 025 . 1 96 0 025, then z0 025 . = 1 9. 6 is the critical value of z at the 0.025 level of signiicance. Crossed factors. Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.

Cumulative normal distribution function
The cumulative distribution of the standard normal distribution, often denoted as ?( ) x and tabulated in Appendix Table II.

Eficiency
A concept in parameter estimation that uses the variances of different estimators; essentially, an estimator is more eficient than another estimator if it has smaller variance. When estimators are biased, the concept requires modiication.

Enumerative study
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study

Error propagation
An analysis of how the variance of the random variable that represents that output of a system depends on the variances of the inputs. A formula exists when the output is a linear function of the inputs and the formula is simpliied if the inputs are assumed to be independent.

Error variance
The variance of an error term or component in a model.

Experiment
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study

Exponential random variable
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study

Extra sum of squares method
A method used in regression analysis to conduct a hypothesis test for the additional contribution of one or more variables to a model.

Fixed factor (or fixed effect).
In analysis of variance, a factor or effect is considered ixed if all the levels of interest for that factor are included in the experiment. Conclusions are then valid about this set of levels only, although when the factor is quantitative, it is customary to it a model to the data for interpolating between these levels.