- 3.1: Statistical Literacy (a) What measures of variation indicate spread...
- 3.2: Critical Thinking Look at the two histograms below. Each involves t...
- 3.3: Critical Thinking Consider the following Minitab display of two dat...
- 3.4: Consumer: Radon Gas Radon: The One Wants to Face is the title of an...
- 3.5: Political Science: Georgia Democrats How Democratic is Georgia? Cou...
- 3.6: Grades: Weighted Average Professor Cramer determines a final grade ...
- 3.7: General: Average Weight An elevator is loaded with 16 people and is...
- 3.8: Agriculture: Harvest Weight of Maize The following data represent w...
- 3.9: Focus Problem: The Educational Advantage Solve the focus problem at...
- 3.10: (a) Make a box-and-whisker plot of the data. Find the interquartile...
- 3.11: Performance Rating: Weighted Average A performance evaluation for n...
Solutions for Chapter 3: Organizing Data
Full solutions for Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition
`-error (or `-risk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by rejecting a null hypothesis when it is actually true (also called a type I error).
A formula used to determine the probability of the union of two (or more) events from the probabilities of the events and their intersection(s).
A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.
Binomial random variable
A discrete random variable that equals the number of successes in a ixed number of Bernoulli trials.
When y fx = ( ) and y is considered to be caused by x, x is sometimes called a causal variable
A horizontal line on a control chart at the value that estimates the mean of the statistic plotted on the chart. See Control chart.
Coeficient of determination
See R 2 .
The probability of an event given that the random experiment produces an outcome in another event.
An estimator that converges in probability to the true value of the estimated parameter as the sample size increases.
Continuous random variable.
A random variable with an interval (either inite or ininite) of real numbers for its range.
A two-dimensional graphic used for a bivariate probability density function that displays curves for which the probability density function is constant.
Formulas used to determine the number of elements in sample spaces and events.
Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.
Defects-per-unit control chart
See U chart
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.
An analysis of how the variance of the random variable that represents that output of a system depends on the variances of the inputs. A formula exists when the output is a linear function of the inputs and the formula is simpliied if the inputs are assumed to be independent.
The expected value of a random variable X is its long-term average or mean value. In the continuous case, the expected value of X is E X xf x dx ( ) = ?? ( ) ? ? where f ( ) x is the density function of the random variable X.
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model
Effects in a fractional factorial experiment that are used to construct the experimental tests used in the experiment. The generators also deine the aliases.
In multiple regression, the matrix H XXX X = ( ) ? ? -1 . This a projection matrix that maps the vector of observed response values into a vector of itted values by yˆ = = X X X X y Hy ( ) ? ? ?1 .