- 8.1: Statistical Literacy In your own words, carefully explain the meani...
- 8.2: Statistical Literacy In your own words, carefully explain the meani...
- 8.3: Critical Thinking If you have a 99% confidence interval for m based...
- 8.4: Auto Insurance: Claims Anystate Auto Insurance Company took a rando...
- 8.5: Psychology: Closure Three experiments investigating the relation be...
- 8.6: Psychology: Closure How large a sample is needed in if we wish to b...
- 8.7: Archaeology: Excavations The Wind Mountain archaeological site is l...
- 8.8: Archaeology: Pottery Sherds of clay vessels were put together to re...
- 8.9: Telephone Interviews: Survey The National Study of the Changing Wor...
- 8.10: Telephone Interviews: Survey How large a sample is needed in if we ...
- 8.11: Archaeology: Pottery Three-circle, red-on-white is one distinctive ...
- 8.12: Archaeology: Pottery Consider the three-circle, red-on-white patter...
- 8.13: Agriculture: Bell Peppers The following data represent soil water c...
- 8.14: Stocks: Retail and Utility How profitable are different sectors of ...
- 8.15: Wildlife: Wolves A random sample of 18 adult male wolves from the C...
- 8.16: Wildlife: Wolves A random sample of 17 wolf litters in Ontario, Can...
- 8.17: Survey Response: Validity The book Survey Responses: An Evaluation ...
- 8.18: Survey Response: Validity Locander et al. (see reference in 17) als...
- 8.19: Now, what is the probability that both intervals hold together? Use...
Solutions for Chapter 8: ESTIMATION
Full solutions for Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition
A formula used to determine the probability of the union of two (or more) events from the probabilities of the events and their intersection(s).
A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.
A method of variable selection in regression that begins with all of the candidate regressor variables in the model and eliminates the insigniicant regressors one at a time until only signiicant regressors remain
Central composite design (CCD)
A second-order response surface design in k variables consisting of a two-level factorial, 2k axial runs, and one or more center points. The two-level factorial portion of a CCD can be a fractional factorial design when k is large. The CCD is the most widely used design for itting a second-order model.
Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.
If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made
A tabular arrangement expressing the assignment of members of a data set according to two or more categories or classiication criteria
See Control chart.
In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.
In the most general usage, a measure of the interdependence among data. The concept may include more than two variables. The term is most commonly used in a narrow sense to express the relationship between quantitative variables or ranks.
Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.
Another name for a probability density function
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.
Distribution free method(s)
Any method of inference (hypothesis testing or conidence interval construction) that does not depend on the form of the underlying distribution of the observations. Sometimes called nonparametric method(s).
Error of estimation
The difference between an estimated value and the true value.
Any test of signiicance involving the F distribution. The most common F-tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variances or standard deviations of two independent normal distributions, (2) testing hypotheses about treatment means or variance components in the analysis of variance, and (3) testing signiicance of regression or tests on subsets of parameters in a regression model.
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model
Fisher’s least signiicant difference (LSD) method
A series of pair-wise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.
Fixed factor (or fixed effect).
In analysis of variance, a factor or effect is considered ixed if all the levels of interest for that factor are included in the experiment. Conclusions are then valid about this set of levels only, although when the factor is quantitative, it is customary to it a model to the data for interpolating between these levels.
An arrangement of the frequencies of observations in a sample or population according to the values that the observations take on