- 10.1: Statistical Literacy Suppose the scatter diagram of a random sample...
- 10.2: Statistical Literacy What does it mean to say that the sample corre...
- 10.3: Statistical Literacy When using the least-squares line for predicti...
- 10.4: Statistical Literacy Suppose that for x 3, the predicted value is y...
- 10.5: Desert Ecology: Wildlife Bighorn sheep are beautiful wild animals f...
- 10.6: Sociology: Job Changes A sociologist is interested in the relation ...
- 10.7: Medical: Fat Babies Modern medical practice tells us not to encoura...
- 10.8: Sales: Insurance Dorothy Kelly sells life insurance for the Prudenc...
- 10.9: Marketing: Coupons Each box of Healthy Crunch breakfast cereal cont...
- 10.10: Focus Problem: Changing Population and Crime Rate Let x be a random...
Solutions for Chapter 10: CORRELATION AND REGRESSION
Full solutions for Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition
2 k p - factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each
Attribute control chart
Any control chart for a discrete random variable. See Variables control chart.
Bivariate normal distribution
The joint distribution of two normal random variables
Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).
When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.
In hypothesis testing, this is the portion of the sample space of a test statistic that will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis.
Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.
Degrees of freedom.
The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.
Deming’s 14 points.
A management philosophy promoted by W. Edwards Deming that emphasizes the importance of change and quality
An experiment in which the tests are planned in advance and the plans usually incorporate statistical models. See Experiment
Distribution free method(s)
Any method of inference (hypothesis testing or conidence interval construction) that does not depend on the form of the underlying distribution of the observations. Sometimes called nonparametric method(s).
Another name for a cumulative distribution function.
A concept in parameter estimation that uses the variances of different estimators; essentially, an estimator is more eficient than another estimator if it has smaller variance. When estimators are biased, the concept requires modiication.
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
Erlang random variable
A continuous random variable that is the sum of a ixed number of independent, exponential random variables.
A signal from a control chart when no assignable causes are present
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model
Fractional factorial experiment
A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.
Geometric random variable
A discrete random variable that is the number of Bernoulli trials until a success occurs.
Goodness of fit
In general, the agreement of a set of observed values and a set of theoretical values that depend on some hypothesis. The term is often used in itting a theoretical distribution to a set of observations.