- 12.1: Statistical Literacy For nonparametric tests, what assumptions, if ...
- 12.2: Critical Thinking Suppose you want to test whether there is a diffe...
- 12.3: Chemistry: Lubricant In the production of synthetic motor lubricant...
- 12.4: Self-Improvement: Memory Professor Adams wrote a book called Improv...
- 12.5: Sales: Paint A chain of hardware stores is trying to sell more pain...
- 12.6: Dogs: Obedience School An obedience school for dogs experimented wi...
- 12.7: Training Program: Fast Food At McDouglas Hamburger stands, each emp...
- 12.8: Cooking School: Chocolate Mousse Two expert French chefs judged cho...
- 12.9: Education: TrueFalse Questions Dr. Gill wants to arrange the answer...
- 12.10: Agriculture: Wheat For the past 16 years, the yields of wheat (in t...
Solutions for Chapter 12: NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS
Full solutions for Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition
In statistical hypothesis testing, this is a hypothesis other than the one that is being tested. The alternative hypothesis contains feasible conditions, whereas the null hypothesis speciies conditions that are under test
The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1 , x2 ,…, xn is their sum divided by the number of observations, or ( / )1 1 n xi t n ? = . The arithmetic mean is usually denoted by x , and is often called the average
Bivariate normal distribution
The joint distribution of two normal random variables
An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defects-per-unit or U chart.
When y fx = ( ) and y is considered to be caused by x, x is sometimes called a causal variable
An experiment in which the treatments (experimental conditions) that are to be studied are included in the experiment. The data from the experiment are used to evaluate the treatments.
Components of variance
The individual components of the total variance that are attributable to speciic sources. This usually refers to the individual variance components arising from a random or mixed model analysis of variance.
When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.
A graphical display used to monitor a process. It usually consists of a horizontal center line corresponding to the in-control value of the parameter that is being monitored and lower and upper control limits. The control limits are determined by statistical criteria and are not arbitrary, nor are they related to speciication limits. If sample points fall within the control limits, the process is said to be in-control, or free from assignable causes. Points beyond the control limits indicate an out-of-control process; that is, assignable causes are likely present. This signals the need to ind and remove the assignable causes.
In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.
In hypothesis testing, this is the portion of the sample space of a test statistic that will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis.
Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.
Defect concentration diagram
A quality tool that graphically shows the location of defects on a part or in a process.
W. Edwards Deming (1900–1993) was a leader in the use of statistical quality control.
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.
Another name for a cumulative distribution function.
The variance of an error term or component in a model.
Extra sum of squares method
A method used in regression analysis to conduct a hypothesis test for the additional contribution of one or more variables to a model.
Fractional factorial experiment
A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.
Effects in a fractional factorial experiment that are used to construct the experimental tests used in the experiment. The generators also deine the aliases.