- 1.1.1: Each of the following processes involves sampling from a population...
- 1.1.2: If you wanted to estimate the mean height of all the students at a ...
- 1.1.3: True or false: a. A simple random sample is guaranteed to reflect e...
- 1.1.4: A sample of 100 college students is selected from all students regi...
- 1.1.5: A certain process for manufacturing integrated circuits has been in...
- 1.1.6: Refer to Exercise 5. True or false: a. If the proportion of defecti...
- 1.1.7: To determine whether a sample should be treated as a simple random ...
- 1.1.8: A medical researcher wants to determine whether exercising can lowe...
- 1.1.9: A medical researcher wants to determine whether exercising can lowe...
Solutions for Chapter 1.1: Sampling
Full solutions for Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition
A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.
Attribute control chart
Any control chart for a discrete random variable. See Variables control chart.
The joint probability distribution of two random variables.
The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.
Conditional probability density function
The probability density function of the conditional probability distribution of a continuous random variable.
When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.
An estimator that converges in probability to the true value of the estimated parameter as the sample size increases.
The value of a statistic corresponding to a stated signiicance level as determined from the sampling distribution. For example, if PZ z PZ ( )( .) . ? =? = 0 025 . 1 96 0 025, then z0 025 . = 1 9. 6 is the critical value of z at the 0.025 level of signiicance. Crossed factors. Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.
Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t
W. Edwards Deming (1900–1993) was a leader in the use of statistical quality control.
Deming’s 14 points.
A management philosophy promoted by W. Edwards Deming that emphasizes the importance of change and quality
Distribution free method(s)
Any method of inference (hypothesis testing or conidence interval construction) that does not depend on the form of the underlying distribution of the observations. Sometimes called nonparametric method(s).
Another name for a cumulative distribution function.
Error of estimation
The difference between an estimated value and the true value.
Fixed factor (or fixed effect).
In analysis of variance, a factor or effect is considered ixed if all the levels of interest for that factor are included in the experiment. Conclusions are then valid about this set of levels only, although when the factor is quantitative, it is customary to it a model to the data for interpolating between these levels.
In statistical quality control, that portion of a number of units or the output of a process that is defective.
Fraction defective control chart
See P chart
An arrangement of the frequencies of observations in a sample or population according to the values that the observations take on
A function used in the probability density function of a gamma random variable that can be considered to extend factorials
The geometric mean of a set of n positive data values is the nth root of the product of the data values; that is, g x i n i n = ( ) = / w 1 1 .