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- Chapter 2:
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The Practice of Statistics 4th Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for The Practice of Statistics | 4th Edition
Average run length, or ARL
The average number of samples taken in a process monitoring or inspection scheme until the scheme signals that the process is operating at a level different from the level in which it began.
An estimator for a parameter obtained from a Bayesian method that uses a prior distribution for the parameter along with the conditional distribution of the data given the parameter to obtain the posterior distribution of the parameter. The estimator is obtained from the posterior distribution.
An effect that systematically distorts a statistical result or estimate, preventing it from representing the true quantity of interest.
Data consisting of counts or observations that can be classiied into categories. The categories may be descriptive.
Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.
The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.
Another term for the conidence coeficient.
A correction factor used to improve the approximation to binomial probabilities from a normal distribution.
A probability distribution for a continuous random variable.
Continuous uniform random variable
A continuous random variable with range of a inite interval and a constant probability density function.
In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.
Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t
Degrees of freedom.
The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.
W. Edwards Deming (1900–1993) was a leader in the use of statistical quality control.
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.
A model to relate a response to one or more regressors or factors that is developed from data obtained from the system.
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model
Gamma random variable
A random variable that generalizes an Erlang random variable to noninteger values of the parameter r
The harmonic mean of a set of data values is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the data values; that is, h n x i n i = ? ? ? ? ? = ? ? 1 1 1 1 g .
In multiple regression, the matrix H XXX X = ( ) ? ? -1 . This a projection matrix that maps the vector of observed response values into a vector of itted values by yˆ = = X X X X y Hy ( ) ? ? ?1 .