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Solutions for Chapter 1: The Practice of Statistics 4th Edition
Full solutions for The Practice of Statistics | 4th Edition
2 k p - factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each
Attribute control chart
Any control chart for a discrete random variable. See Variables control chart.
An estimator for a parameter obtained from a Bayesian method that uses a prior distribution for the parameter along with the conditional distribution of the data given the parameter to obtain the posterior distribution of the parameter. The estimator is obtained from the posterior distribution.
Bivariate normal distribution
The joint distribution of two normal random variables
An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defects-per-unit or U chart.
Chi-square (or chi-squared) random variable
A continuous random variable that results from the sum of squares of independent standard normal random variables. It is a special case of a gamma random variable.
A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the off-diagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .
The value of a statistic corresponding to a stated signiicance level as determined from the sampling distribution. For example, if PZ z PZ ( )( .) . ? =? = 0 025 . 1 96 0 025, then z0 025 . = 1 9. 6 is the critical value of z at the 0.025 level of signiicance. Crossed factors. Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.
Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.
Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t
Defects-per-unit control chart
See U chart
Degrees of freedom.
The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.
A subset of effects in a fractional factorial design that deine the aliases in the design.
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.
An experiment in which the tests are planned in advance and the plans usually incorporate statistical models. See Experiment
A model to relate a response to one or more regressors or factors that is developed from data obtained from the system.
Error mean square
The error sum of squares divided by its number of degrees of freedom.
A type of experimental design in which every level of one factor is tested in combination with every level of another factor. In general, in a factorial experiment, all possible combinations of factor levels are tested.
Geometric random variable
A discrete random variable that is the number of Bernoulli trials until a success occurs.
The harmonic mean of a set of data values is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the data values; that is, h n x i n i = ? ? ? ? ? = ? ? 1 1 1 1 g .