Refer to the accompanying map showing the Eastern Seaboard of the United States to complete the following: a. Which letter is associated with each of the following? Continental shelf; continental slope; and shelf-break. b. How does the size of the continental shelf surrounding Florida compare to the size of the Florida peninsula? c. Why are there no deep-ocean trenches on this map?
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012 04/18/2016 Attraction & Relationships Attraction & Relationships ➢ Who do we find attractive ○ Proximity, mere exposure, similarity ○ Features ○ Matching people ➢ What makes a satisfying relationship ○ Social exchange theory ○ Equity theory ○ Love types ○ Evolutionary theory Attraction ➢ People have a strong need to belong and to affiliate with others ➢ What determines attraction ○ Proximity (propinquity): the more we see and interact with people, the more likely we are to develop relationships with them ■ Geographical distance literal distance ■ Functional distance likelihood to come into contact ■ Housing complex study ● Neighbors began as strangers ○ Mere Exposure Effect: the more exposure we have to a stimulus (e.g., foreign words, faces, music, etc.), the more apt we are to like it ■ Ex: The more times people saw a foreign word, the more likely they were to guess that it meant something good ■ Ex: Students liked the woman (a confederate) they had seen in class most often, even though they have never interacted with her ○ Similarity: we like those people who match our interests, personality, backgrounds, attitudes, etc ■ Ex: Roommates who were more similar became better friends over time than dissimilar roommates ■ Ex: People are more likely to marry someone who is similar, rather than dissimilar, to them ■ Opposites do not attract ■ Why does similarity matter ● We tend to think that people who are similar to us will also like us; so, we are more likely to initiate relationships ● People who are similar validate our own characteristics and beliefs ● We make negative inferences about people who disagree with us ■ What about differences ● Differences are rewarding ● Core values more important than superficial similarity ○ Reciprocal Liking: we tend to like people who like us ■ Ex: People told that others like them reported reciprocal affection ■ Ex: Men liked a woman who showed interest in them even when they knew she was dissimilar to them on important issues ○ Physical Attractiveness: we like people who are physically attractive (esp. If they are of the “noncompetition” sex (people we don’t have to compete against for mates)) ■ Blind Date Study ■ Attractiveness matters for both men and women ● Differences exist but more in what people say than what they do ■ Halo Effect: what is attractive / beautiful is “good” stereotype ● Automatically assigning attractive people with favorable traits (e.g., talent, kindness, honesty, intelligence) ■ Babies gaze longer at attractive faces ■ Teachers evaluate “cute” children as smarter and more popular ■ Attractive defendants receive more lenient sentences ■ Crosscultural agreement; however different cultures “improve” beauty in different ways ■ No empirical relationship between attractiveness and intellect, happiness, selfesteem, or mental health ■ What is attractive ** ● “ Babyface” features: large eyes, small nose and chin, big smile ○ Men find this attractive in women ● Sexual maturity features: prominent cheekbones, large chin (on men only), facial / eyebrow hair (on men only) ○ Both men and women (but especially women ) find this attractive ● Expressive features: wide smile, high eyebrows ○ Both men and women (but especially men) find this attractive ● Perfectly average faces are most attractive *** ○ Why ■ Familiarity ■ Symmetry ● Symmetrical features ● “Average” features Matching Principle ➢ Def: tendency for people to choose partners that match their own level of attractiveness (and other traits) ○ Married couples “match” better than dating couples ➢ When people don’t match on attractiveness, the less attractive partner usually has compensating qualities (like wealth, knowledge, etc) ➢ What do mates match on ○ Ethnic backgrounds ○ Religion and values ○ Social class ○ Personality (e.g., sensation seeking) ○ Physical attractiveness Relationships ➢ Social Exchange Theory ○ Economic view of relationships ■ Maximize rewards and benefits ● (positive qualities: companionship, partner’s good traits, material resources) ■ Minimize costs ● (negative qualities: conflict, partner’s negative traits, sacrifices) ○ Comparison of rewards and costs determines relationship satisfaction ○ Comparison Level: expected rewards and costs of the relationship ■ Low = easily satisfied ■ High = not easily satisfied ○ Comparison Level for Alternatives: expected rewards and costs for an alternative relationship ■ Low = high commitment to current relationship ■ High = low commitment to current relationship ○ Equity Theory: people are most satisfied in relationships in which the ratio of rewards to costs is the same for both people ■ Not the same as equity *** ● One partner may get more benefits, but if he/she also makes more contributions, then the relationship can still be equitable Your benefits Partner′s benefits ■ Your contributionsPartne′s contributions ■ Inequity makes both people less satisfied ● Underbenefited = angry and resentful ● Overbenefited = guilty ■ However, feeling underbenefited is worse **