Detection limit. A sensitive chromatographic method was developed to measure sub-part-per-billion levels of the disinfectant by-products iodate (IO 3 ), chlorite (ClO 2 ), and bromate (BrO 3 ) in drinking water. As the oxyhalides emerge from the column, they react with Br to make Br 3, which is measured by its strong absorption at 267 nm. For example, each mole of bromate makes 3 mol of Br 3 by the reaction Bromate near its detection limit gave the following chromatographic peak heights and standard deviations (s). For each concentration, estimate the detection limit. Find the mean detection limit. The blank is 0 because chromatographic peak height is measured from the baseline adjacent to the peak. Because blank 0, relative standard deviation applies to both peak height and concentration, which are proportional to each other. Detection limit is 3s for peak height or concentration. Bromate Peak height Relative Number concentration (arbitrary standard of (g/L) units) deviation (%) measurements 0.2 17 14.4 8 0.5 31 6.8 7 1.0 56 3.2 7 2.0 111 1.9 7 SOURCE: H. S. Weinberg and H. Yamada, Post-Ion-Chromatography Derivatization for the Determination of Oxyhalides at Sub-PPB Levels in Drinking Water, Anal. Chem. 1998, 70, 1.
10/10 Chapter 4- Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions (Cont.) Stoichiometry 1) Molar ratio of reactants and products to each other 2) Reactant stoichiometry when burning propane is 1 propane to 5 oxygen molecules 3) Propane is equal to 3 CO after burning 2 4) You need to know the number of moles/molecules for this to work. Anything else is not applicable. a) For example, if you are given mass, you need to turn that into moles by dividing by Molar Mass, and then you find the moles of the other given element and turn that back into mass by multiplying by Molar Mass. b) Example