×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Chemistry: The Central Science - 12 Edition - Chapter 14 - Problem 73e
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Chemistry: The Central Science - 12 Edition - Chapter 14 - Problem 73e

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

Reaction Mechanisms (Section)What is the molecularity of

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 73E Chapter 14

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

4 5 1 282 Reviews
16
1
Problem 73E

Problem 73E

Reaction Mechanisms (Section)

What is the molecularity of each of the following elementary reactions? Write the rate law for each.

(a) Cl2(g)→2 Cl(g)

(b) OCl- (aq) + H2O(l)→HOCl(aq) + OH- (aq)

(c) NO(g) + Cl2(g)→NOCl2(g)

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Chapter 16 Performance Enhancing Drugs History AncientTimes: • Earlyconcoc▯ons ◦ I.E.Consuminghorsehoofpowdertomakeonerunasfast • Maynothaveprovidedanytruephysicalperformanceenhancement • Couldhaveplacebovalueforboos▯ngconfidence • AncientGreekOlympians&Aztecathletesusedplant-baseds▯mulants ◦ Herbs,mushrooms,cactus-basedstrychnines▯mulants S▯mulantssomeoftheearliestuseddrugs • Beginningin1800s ◦ CocawineusedbyFrenchcyclingteam • Athleteslaterusedpurecocaine ◦ Caffeineincoffee • Orstraightupcaffeinetablets ◦ Amphetaminesin1930s • Useof"peppills"byprosoccerplayers,boxers,&cyclists • 1960CyclistdiedfromuseduringraceinRome ▪ Combina▯onofamphetamines&sunstroke Strychnine • Famousasaratpoison • Lowdoses=CNSs▯mulant • Highdoses=Convulsions&death • Usereportedinboxers,possiblytomakethemmoreaggressive&reducefa▯gue • 1904St.LouisOlympicmarathonwinner ◦ Mixedbrandy&strychnine ◦ Collapsed&hadtobereviveda▯errace Interna▯onalDrugTes▯ng • 1960ssomesportsbegantes▯ngathletes deun▯noc sme l bo◦rP ◦ 1968Interna▯onalOlympicCommi▯eeestablishedrulestodisqualifyathleteswhoused banneddrugsorrefusedtes▯ng • AmericanFootball ◦ 1960smanyplayersusedamphetaminesduringgames ◦ 1971NFLbanneddistribu▯onofamphetaminesbyteamphysicians/trainers • Manyplayerssuedtheirteamsforhavingthemplayundertheinfluence ◦ Playerscoulds▯llobtaindrugontheirown ◦ CurrentNFLpolicyrestrictsalluseofamphetamines&manyotherdrugs Steroids • Establishedmedicaluseforweightgaininmalnourishedppl ◦ WW2usedformalnourishedppl ◦ SovietUnionusedtestosteroneonawidescaleforOlympicathletes • Sovietsbegantousetestosteronetobuildupathletesin1950s • ManyUSathletesusedsteroidsin1960s 1 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Weightlifers,bodybuilders ◦ Track&fieldathletes • Tes▯ngbeganin1970s ◦ Athletesbegantobecaught&banned Ba▯leOverTes▯ng • Since1980sreportsofdruguseamongathletesincreased • 1986NCAAbannedalistofover3,000brand-namedrugscontainingbannedsubstances • Amateur&prosportsorganiza▯onsadoptedmorestricttes▯ngguidelines&longerlistsof bannedsubstances • Useofperformanceenhancingsubstancescon▯nues • Ongoingdevelopmentofnewdrugs&strategiestohelpathletesavoiddetec▯on BALCOScandal • BALCO:BayAreaLaboratoryCoopera▯ve • 2003rumorsofsteroidusecirculatedaroundprobaseballplayers • Athletesfoundtobeusingtetrahydrogestrinone(THG) • Previouslyunknownanabolicsteroidthatdidn’tshowupontests • DevelopedbyUSAn▯-DopingAgency • Nicknamed"TheClear" • THGhashighaffinityforandrogen&progesteronereceptor • Highlypotentagonist • BALCOfounderVictorConteimplicated • June2003:evidencesurfacedonTHGuseinathletes Products&Effects S▯mulants • Effec▯veness: ◦ StudiesindicatemostathletesshowSMALLimprovementonamphetamines ◦ Smallimprovementscanmakebigdifferencesinendurancesports ◦ Underlyingmechanismunclear • Increasedphysicalability(strength,maskingoffa▯gue) • Effectsonthebrain(increasedconfidence,winninga▯tude) ◦ Atlegallevels,caffeinemayprovideslightimprovementforendurancesports • Increasesendurance • Amateurmarathonrunnersmightconsumecocacolaorespressoforanedge Cocaine • Noexperimentscarriedoutonperformance-enhancingabili▯es • 1980smanyathletesbelieveditimprovedperformance • Similartoamphetamineproper▯es ◦ Shorterdura▯onofac▯on ◦ Briefeffects ◦ Doesn'timproveenduranceoverlongperiods • Cocaine&amphetamineuserunriskofaddic▯on Ephedrine • OnOlympic&NCAAlistsofbannedsubstances • Prosportsorganiza▯onsslowertobanit ◦ Majorleaguebaseball:2003pitcherSteveBechlerdiedduetoephedrine-relatedheat stroke(Ft.Lauderdale) ◦ 2004FDAbannedephedra&ephedrineindietarysupplements 2 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Steroids • Physicaleffectsofnaturaltestosterone • Androgeniceffects(masculinizing) ◦ Growthofpenis&othermalesexglands(shrinkstestes) ◦ Deepeningofthevoice ◦ Increasedfacialhair(men&women) • Anaboliceffects(▯ssuebuilding) ◦ Increasedmusclemass • Musclesrepairfaster,allowingathletestoreturntoheavyworkoutssooner ◦ Controlofdistribu▯onofbodyfat ◦ Increasedproteinsynthesis ◦ Increasedcalciuminbones • Synthe▯cAnabolicSteroids ◦ Drugcompaniessynthesizedtypesofsteroids • Fewerandrogeniceffects • Moreanaboliceffects • Noten▯relyfreeofandrogeniceffects • Effec▯veness: ◦ Mixed/controversialresearchfindings • Testosteronebuildsmusclemass&strengthduringpuberty • Animalstudies:synthe▯canabolicsteroidsbuildmuscleincastratedanimals • Unclearifgivingextraanabolicsteroidstoadolescent/adultmalesw.normal levelshassignificanteffect • Labresearchonhealthymen: ▪ Steroidscanproducesmallincreasesinleanmusclemass&some▯mes muscularstreength ▪ Noevidenceforoverallincreaseinaerobiccapacity • Researchfindingsmaynotmatchword-of-mouth • Limita▯ons: ◦ Difficulttoextrapolatelabfindingstoathletes • Athletesmayusemuchhigherdoses • Athletesmayusecombina▯ons(stacking) ◦ Psychologicaleffectsmayaffectresults • Usersreportfeelingstronger,li▯ingmore,workingoutharder • Possibleplaceboeffect ◦ Double-blindexperimentsalmostimpossible • Veryeasytodetectwhichpar▯cipantsareonsteroids • Psychologicaleffects: ◦ Produces▯mulant-likehigh&increasedaggressiveness • Mayallowmoreworkdoneduringtraining&increasedintensityofeffortduring compe▯▯on ◦ Risks/HighDoses: • Psychologicaldependence ▪ Moodswings,depressionwhennottakingdrugs deun▯noc s i d nehw no i s s e r p▪e D • Interferencew.socialrela▯onships&otherlifeareas • "RoidRage:" 3 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ▪ Violentfeelings&ac▯onsamongsteroidusers • AdverseEffects: ◦ Youngusers:Prematureclosureofthegrowthplatesoflongbones,stun▯nggrowth ◦ Men:Atrophyoftestes,breastenlargement,baldness ◦ Women:Decreasedbreastsize,enlargementofclitoris,increasedfacialhair,deepening ofvoice ◦ Allusers:Peliosishepa▯▯s(bloodylivercysts),changesinbloodlipidlevelscontribu▯ng toathersclerosis,highbloodpressure,heartdisease,acne • Regula▯on: ◦ Largeblackmarket ◦ Concernsaboutuseamongadolescentboys&non-athletes ◦ AnabolicsteroidslistedonScheduleII • Limitedprescrip▯onrefills • Morerecord-keeping Addi▯onalHormonalManipula▯ons • Somemenconsumefemalesexhormonestocompeteinwomen'ssports ◦ 1964Olympicswomen'sgoldmedalsprinterreturnedmedalwhendiscoveredhe'sa manwhotookhormones • Hormonereceptor-blockingdrugsusedtodelaypuberyinfemalegymnasts ◦ Smallergymnastshaveathle▯cadvantage HumanGrowthHormone • Pituitaryhormonethatcanpoten▯allyincreaseheight/weightofanindividualtogigan▯c propor▯ons • Rareinstancesofexcessivebodyproduc▯onofhormoneproduces"giants"over7▯tall ◦ Condi▯onusuallyresultsinearlydeath(organsdon'tstopgrowing) • Administra▯onofdosesofHGH&relatedhormonesmayproducemorecontrolledincreasein bodysize • Experimentshavenotshownthatitincreasesmuscleproteinsynthesisorstrength ◦ Increasesleanbodymass • IllegaltodistributeHGHfornonmedicalpurposes Beta-2Agonists • Selec▯ves▯mula▯onofbeta-2subtypeofadrenergicreceptors ◦ Usedinasthmamedica▯ons&inhalers • Sympathomime▯ceffectsonbronchioflungs ◦ Improvesbreathinginathletes • Animalstudiesshowpossibleeffectonmusclemass • Noevidenceforimprovedathle▯cperformance ◦ Someincreaseinstrength,butnotathle▯cperformance • Bannedforuseincompe▯▯on ◦ Rulesapplytoasthma▯cathletes Crea▯ne • Naturalsubstancefoundinmeat&fish,soldlegallyasdietarysupplement • Ac▯ons/Effects: ◦ HelpsregenerateATP,providesenergyformusclecontrac▯ons ◦ Userstendtogainweight,someofwhichwaterweight • Crea▯nemayimprovestrength&shorttermsprin▯ngspeed • Noevidenceforimprovementinenduranceevents 4 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Performancemaydecreaseduetoweightgain ◦ Appearsrela▯velysafe,notmuchknownaboutlong-termorhighdoseuse OtherNutri▯onalSupplements • ErgogenicAids ◦ Ergogenic=energy-producing ◦ Supplementsunlikelytobeofvalueinanathlete*receivingpropernutri▯on: ◦ Aminoacids ◦ Carbohydrates • Loadingpriortolong-distanceeventsmayenhanceperformance ◦ Fats ◦ Vitamins ◦ Minerals • Ironsupplementsmaybehelpfulforiron-deficientathletes*femaleathletes ◦ Electrolytedrinks • Maybeusefulinmarathons&ultra-enduranceevents ◦ Sodiumbicarbonate • Evidencemixedfor"buffering"bloodpHw.bakingsodaforanaerobiceventslike sprintraces r etaW • Mostimportantsubstanceforallsports • Neededduringexercisetopreventdehydra▯on&improveperformance Harms Ge▯ng"Cut" • Weightchallengesinsports ◦ Wrestlers&jockeysneedtomakespecificweightcuts ◦ Athletesmayengageinextrememethodstoachieveshort-termweightloss/"Make weight" • Purging • Diure▯cs • Swea▯ng/detoxing(exercisinginheatorwhilewearingnonporousclothing) ◦ Manybodybuilderstake"fatburning"supplementsofques▯onablesafety& effec▯veness Treatment AvoidingBannedSubstances:TipsforAthletes • Knowthelistofsubstancesbannedforyoursport • Makecertainotherinvolvedpplknowthelist • Knowwhatmedica▯onsyou'reusing • Atcompe▯▯ons,drinkonlyoutofsealedcontainers;don'tleavecontainersuna▯endeda▯er openin • Neverleaveurinesamplesfortes▯nguna▯endedun▯lsealedinanofficialshippingcontainer • Informadministratorsofanyirregulari▯esinthetes▯ngprocess • Ifyouplantodisputeaposi▯veresult:arrangetowitnessw.anotherqualifiedevaluatorthe"B" sampletest News • LanceArmstrong ◦ Formerprofessionalroadracingcyclist 5 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Disqualifiedfordoping ◦ Consumeddrugswhennotbeingtestedordrugsundetectablebytests : s gu ◦rD • EPO/Erythropoie▯n ▪ Hormonenaturallyproducedbykidneys no▯cudo r p l l e c doo l b de r s e t a l um ▯S ▪ Increasesamtofoxygendeliveredtomuscles&improvesrecovery/ endurance • Bloodtransfusions ▪ SimilareffectstoEPO ▪ Athletesstoresomebloodwhenhemoglobinlevelshigh,thenreinfuseit rightbeforeanevent ▪ Undetectablebycurrenttests • Testosterone ▪ Naturallyoccurringhormoneregula▯ngbonedensity,fatdistribu▯on, musclestrength,redbloodcellproduc▯on,sexdrive ▪ Abusedbyathletestobulkup ▪ Sideeffectssimilartodoping,&increasesbody'sredbloodcellcount • Cor▯sone ▪ Man-madedrugsresemblingcor▯solhormone ▪ Differentfromanabolicsteroidsforstrength • AlexRodriguez ◦ Miamibaseballplayer,wenttopros ◦ Richestinbaseballhistory ◦ Admi▯edtousingsteroids&biogenesisscandal • HumanGrowthHormone(HGH) ▪ Originallyformedicalpurposesun▯lathletesabuseditforincreasing abili▯es • 1989bannedfromuseinsports ▪ Limitedevidenceshowsitincreasesleanbodymass ▪ Maynotimprovestrength 6

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 14, Problem 73E is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

Since the solution to 73E from 14 chapter was answered, more than 307 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: Elementary, hocl, Law, mechanisms, molecularity. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 73E from chapter: 14 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM. Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. The answer to “Reaction Mechanisms (Section)What is the molecularity of each of the following elementary reactions? Write the rate law for each.(a) Cl2(g)?2 Cl(g)________________(b) OCl- (aq) + H2O(l)?HOCl(aq) + OH- (aq)________________(c) NO(g) + Cl2(g)?NOCl2(g)” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 31 words.

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

Reaction Mechanisms (Section)What is the molecularity of