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Which evaporates more quickly: 55 mL of water in a beaker with a diameter of 4.5 cm or

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro ISBN: 9780321910295 34

Solution for problem 35P Chapter 12

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition

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Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition

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Problem 35P

PROBLEM 35P

Which evaporates more quickly: 55 mL of water in a beaker with a diameter of 4.5 cm or 55 mL of water in a dish with a diameter of 12 cm? Why?

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Chapter 4: Federalism and The U.S. Constitution 1. Legislature – the body of government that makes laws, because America is a democracy this is the lawmaking power chosen. 2. Bicameral Legislature – this is what the US congress is because it has two separate chambers and the people choose the legislators within the chambers for terms of 2 years [house] or 6 years [senate]. 3. Republic – a government in which decisions are made through representation of the people  Article I Section 8: Spells out the specific powers of congress  Congress can do anything “necessary and proper” to carry out its duties  The House of Representatives: representation based on population, the founders wanted this house to be easily accessible and influenced by the people. [Must be 25 years old and a citizen for 7 years – 2 year term]  The Senate: very elite group, much older, wiser, and more stable than those in the house. [Must be 30 years old and a citizen for 9 years – 6 year term] 4. Unicameral Legislature – a legislature with one chamber.  Unicameral Legislatures are followed by a number of countries including, Malta, New Zealand, Denmark, Sweden, Spain, Israel, and even one of our own states: Nebraska  On a national level this legislature can be seen as positive because it can make citizens feel more of a connection with their government, knowing the whole country can be represented by a single body shows that the whole country shares the same interests  Although, the more the power of government is divided up into smaller units, the safer the government would be from those who would abuse its power. 5. Executive – the branch of government responsible for putting laws into effect. 6. Electoral College – an intermediary body that elects the president.  Article II: Establishes the executive  Section 1: 4 year term, qualifications for the president [natural born citizen, 35 years old, and a resident of the US for 14 years] and the election process  Section 2: establishes the powers of the executive  Section 3: the president will periodically inform congress on how he believes the country is doing and propose the measures he thinks will best fit.  Section 4: impeachment is possible 7. Presidential System – government in which the executive is chosen independently of the legislature and the two branches are separate. 8. Parliamentary System – government in which the executive is chosen by the legislature among its members and the two branches are merged. 9. Judicial Power – the power to interpret laws and judge whether a law has been broken. 10. Judicial Review – the power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws.  The judiciary was the least threatening branch of power  Has neither force nor will but merely judgment – leaves more concentration on doing what is constitutional  The court does NOT examine every law that congress passes, although with the judicial review IF a law is challenged as unconstitutional and is appealed all the way to the Supreme Court, then the justices may decide to rule on it  Because the constitution is so silent on the rules of the court, that role has been left to be defined by congress and even by the courts themselves 11. Legislative Supremacy – an alternative to judicial review, this is to merely allow the legislatures law’s to stand unchallenged and finalized. 12. Separation of Powers – not allowing the legislature, executive, and judicial branch to be exercised by the same person or groups, thereby limiting the powers of each. 13. Checks and Balances – allows each branch of government to exercise some form of control over the others  Article I: sets up the bicameral legislature  Article II: empowers the president to executive laws  Article III: creates the Supreme Court 14. Fusion of Powers – the opposite of separation of power, combining or blending branches of government.  Federalism refers to the relationship between the national government and the states  Local government is not mentioned in the constitution at all because it is completely under the jurisdiction of the states  Many powers of the national government are the powers of congress 15. Enumerated Powers of Congress – the strongest statement of national power, the list of powers congress has, followed by a clause giving congress the power to make all laws that are “necessary and proper” to carry out its power. 16. Necessary and Proper Clause – also called the “Elastic Clause”, used to justify giving congress many powers never mentioned in the constitution. 17. Supremacy Clause – of Article VI, when national and state laws conflict, the national law will be followed.  The constitution says even less about the powers granted to the states.  Although, there is the 10 amendment stating that all powers not given to the national government are reserved for the states th  Even with the 10 amendment, the necessary and proper clause make it hard for states to have the final say sometimes 18. Concurrent Powers – powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments. 19. Dual Federalism – a failed theory, the federal system under which the national and state government are responsible for separate policy areas. 20. Cooperative Federalism – unlike dual federalism, rather than being two completely separate layers, this new theory emphasized the national and state levels to be interdependent and each level required the cooperation of the other to get things done.  Federalism came to be seen by political scientists as a partnership, in which the dominant partner was, most often, the national government 21. Unitary System – the central government has all the power and the local units are dependent on it [centralized government]. 22. Confederal System – how the US was under the articles of confederation, the local units held all the power and the central government is dependent on them for its existence. 23. Federal System – the flow of power goes in both directions.  Some consequences of giving the states so much power include:  Placing states in competition with one another for scarce resources  Providing easy access to governing within a state, the more of a specific interest group there is in a state the easier it is for them to create rules and regulations, leaving those who oppose no way out  Different penalties for different crimes between states make it difficult to gauge the consequences of one’s behavior in another state 24. McCulloch v. Maryland – Supreme Court ruling of 1819, confirming the supremacy of national over state government  Whether congress had the power to charter a bank and whether Maryland had the power to tax that bank  John Marshall found it appropriate to charter a bank  Although, Maryland could not tax this bank because “the power to tax involves the power to destroy” this would mean the state could overrule the national government giving it WAY too much power 25. Gibbons v. Ogden – Supreme Court ruling of 1824, establishing national authority over interstate business  Marshall continued, deciding that New York did not have the right to create a steamboat monopoly on the Hudson River  Article I section 8 allowing congress to regulate commerce 26. Nullification – declaration by a state that a federal law be null within its borders.  The Civil War represented a giant step in the direction of a stronger national government although a big reason it was fought was to resolve the question of national v. state supremacy  Northern states were national government post civil war ending  Federalism today, most of the time people will fight to have decisions made in the arena, national or state, whether they are most likely to succeed 27. Devolution – the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal th government to the states [movement came to a stop following Sep. 11 ]  National government care so much about what states do because:  From a congress member’s point of view, it is easier to solve many social and economic problems at the national level  Members of congress profit electorally by passing laws and regulations that bring to their states resources  Sometimes congress prefers to adopt national legislations to preempt what states may be doing or planning to do Federal policymakers face one of the biggest challenges in this regard: how to get the states to do what federal officials have decided they should do.  Congress makes two key decisions when it attempts to influence what the states are doing: must be concerned with the character of the rules and regulations and then it must be concerned whether the cost of the new programs will be paid by the national government and how much.  With the combination of these two decisions, 4 strategies arise on how to...

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Chapter 12, Problem 35P is Solved
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Textbook: Introductory Chemistry
Edition: 5
Author: Nivaldo J Tro
ISBN: 9780321910295

Since the solution to 35P from 12 chapter was answered, more than 312 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 5. The answer to “Which evaporates more quickly: 55 mL of water in a beaker with a diameter of 4.5 cm or 55 mL of water in a dish with a diameter of 12 cm? Why?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 32 words. Introductory Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321910295. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 35P from chapter: 12 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 05/06/17, 06:45PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: Water, diameter, evaporates, dish, quickly. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 19 chapters, and 2045 solutions.

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Which evaporates more quickly: 55 mL of water in a beaker with a diameter of 4.5 cm or